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The pollination biology of three mass flowering Utricularia species of the Indian Western Ghats, U. albocaerulea, U. purpurascens, and U. reticulata, was studied for the first time by extensive observation of flower visitors, pollination experiments, and nectar analyses. The ephemerality of the Utricularia habitats on lateritic plateaus, weather conditions(More)
Transitions between animal and wind pollination have occurred in many lineages and have been linked to various floral modifications, but these have seldom been assessed in a phylogenetic framework. In the dioecious genus Leucadendron (Proteaceae), transitions from insect to wind pollination have occurred at least four times. Using analyses that controlled(More)
An outstanding feature of the orchid family is that approximately 30-40% of the species have non-rewarding flowers and deploy various modes of deception to attract pollinators, whereas the remaining species engage in pollination mutualisms based on provision of floral rewards. Here, we explore the direction, frequency and reversibility of transitions(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The Orchidaceae have a history of recurring convergent evolution in floral function as nectar production has evolved repeatedly from an ancestral nectarless state. However, orchids exhibit considerable diversity in nectary type, position and morphology, indicating that this convergence arose from alternative adaptive solutions. Using the(More)
Unrelated plants adapted to particular pollinator types tend to exhibit convergent evolution in floral traits. However, inferences about likely pollinators from 'pollination syndromes' can be problematic due to trait overlap among some syndromes and unusual floral architecture in some lineages. An example is the rare South African parasitic plant(More)
Inbreeding depression can reduce the performance of offspring produced by mating between relatives, with consequences for population dynamics and sexual-system evolution. In flowering plants, inbreeding depression commonly acts most intensely during seed development. This predispersal component is typically estimated by comparing seed production following(More)
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