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Enhancement of tumor cell growth and invasiveness by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) requires constitutive activation of the ras/MAPK pathway. Here we have investigated how MEK activation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) influences the response of fully differentiated and growth-arrested pig thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture to(More)
The inhibitory Smad7, a direct target gene for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), mediates TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis in several cell types. Herein, we report that apoptosis of human prostate cancer PC-3U cells induced by TGF-beta1 or Smad7 overexpression is caused by a specific activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in a(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is an important regulator of apoptosis in some cell types, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. TGF-beta signals through type I and type II receptors and downstream effector proteins, termed Smads. TGF-beta induces the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 (receptor-activated Smads) which(More)
Research on the biology of the tumor stroma has the potential to lead to development of more effective treatment regimes enhancing the efficacy of drug-based treatment of solid malignancies. Tumor stroma is characterized by distorted blood vessels and activated connective tissue cells producing a collagen-rich matrix, which is accompanied by elevated(More)
A high tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is a pathologic characteristic distinguishing the stroma of carcinomas from normal interstitial loose connective tissues. The role of TGF-beta1 and -beta3 in generating a high TIFP was investigated in xenografted experimental anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) derived from the human ATC cell line KAT-4. A(More)
The inhibitory Smad7, a direct target gene for transforming growth factor(TGF), mediates TGF1–induced apoptosis in several cell types. Herein, we report that apoptosis of human prostate cancer PC-3U cells induced by TGF1 or Smad7 overexpression is caused by a specific activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in a TGF–activated kinase 1(More)
In this study we present two novel anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) lines (HTh 104 and HTh 112) and further characterize six frequently used ATC lines (HTh 7, HTh 74, HTh 83, C 643, KAT-4, and SW 1736). Three of the lines carried a heterozygous BRAF mutation V600E, which is in line with reports of BRAF mutations in primary ATC and papillary thyroid(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the effects of 2methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an endogenous estrogenic metabolite, on human endometrial cancer HEC-1-A and RL-95-2 cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS After exposure of HEC-1-A and RL-95-2 cells to 2-ME, the morphological changes were evaluated by acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy. Cell cycle(More)
We tested the suitability of the chimeric monoclonal anti-human CD44 splice version 6 antibody (cMAb U36) for targeting and visualising human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with PET. We also performed experiments aimed at elucidating the relation between tumour interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the tumour uptake of antibodies. The affinity and(More)
The stroma of carcinomas shares several characteristics with inflamed tissues including a distorted vasculature, active angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. In addition, the tumor interstitial fluid pressure (P(IF)) of the stroma is pathologically elevated. We show here that bevacizumab [rhuMab vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Avastin], a(More)