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Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple environmental etiologies and alternative pathways of carcinogenesis. Beyond mutations in TP53, alterations in other genes or pathways account for only small subsets of the disease. We performed exome sequencing of 22 gastric cancer samples and identified previously unreported mutated genes and pathway(More)
Treatment of second- and third-line patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor erlotinib significantly increased survival relative to placebo. Whereas patient tumors with EGFR mutations have shown responses to EGFR inhibitors, an exclusive role for mutations in patient survival(More)
The role of DT-diaphorase in bioreductive activation of mitomycin C was examined using HT-29 and BE human carcinoma cells which have high and low levels of DT-diaphorase activity, respectively. HT-29 cells were more sensitive to mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity than the DT-diaphorase-deficient BE cell line. Mitomycin C induced DNA interstrand cross-linking(More)
A number of 3-alkyl analogues of the experimental antitumor drug mitozolomide [8-carbamoyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)imidazo[5,1-d]-1,2,3,5-tetrazin-4(3H )-one] have been screened against murine tumors in vivo. Only the compounds with a 3-methyl- or 3-bromoethyl group possessed significant antitumor activity against the TLX5 lymphoma. The 3-methyl analogue,(More)
We show that two commonly occurring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) somatic mutations, L858R and an in-frame deletion mutant, Del(746-750), exhibit distinct enzymatic properties relative to wild-type EGFR and are differentially sensitive to erlotinib. Kinetic analysis of the purified intracellular domains of EGFR L858R and EGFR Del(746-750) reveals(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and its ligands, IGF-I and IGF-II, are up-regulated in a variety of human cancers. In tumors, such as colorectal, non-small cell lung, ovarian, and pediatric cancers, which may drive their own growth and survival through autocrine IGF-II expression, the role of IGF-IR is especially critical. Here, we present a(More)
BACKGROUND The IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been implicated in the promotion of tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance to cancer therapies. Therefore, this receptor has become a major focus for the development of anticancer agents. RESULTS Our lead optimization efforts that blended structure-based design and empirical medicinal chemistry led to the(More)
The role of DT-diaphorase (DTD, EC 1.6.99.2) in the bioreductive activation of mitomycin C was examined using purified rat hepatic DTD. The formation of adducts with reduced glutathione (GSH), binding of [3H]mitomycin C to DNA, and mitomycin C-induced DNA interstrand cross-linking were used as indicators of bioactivation. Mitomycin C was metabolized by DTD(More)
The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is overexpressed in many cancers. One important signaling pathway regulated by EGFR is the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1-Akt pathway. Activation of Akt leads to the stimulation of antiapoptotic pathways, promoting cell survival. Akt also regulates the mammalian(More)
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase; DTD) is an obligate two-electron reductase which may play a role in the bioactivation of antitumor quinones such as mitomycin C (MMC). We studied 10 colon carcinoma cell lines showing different levels of DTD activity (range, 0-3447 nmol/min/mg protein), as measured by the reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol.(More)