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Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered G protein-coupled receptor ligand that modulates fear-like behaviors in rodents. A frequent A>T single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human NPS receptor gene NPSR1 confers a 10-fold higher efficacy of NPS signaling in vitro and has been linked with panic disorder (PD). We here report data from a classical(More)
Traumatic events can engender persistent excessive fear responses to trauma reminders that may return even after successful treatment. Extinction, the laboratory analog of behavior therapy, does not erase conditioned fear memories but generates competing, fear-inhibitory "extinction memories" that, however, are tied to the context in which extinction(More)
Reappraisal has been defined as a conscious, deliberate change in the way an emotional stimulus is interpreted, initiated in order to change its emotion-eliciting character (Gross, 2002). Reappraisal can be used to down-regulate negative emotions, including anxiety (reviewed in Kalisch, 2009). There is currently a strong interest in identifying the(More)
Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders relies on the principle of confronting a patient with the triggers of his fears, allowing him to make the unexpected safety experience that his fears are unfounded and resulting in the extinction of fear responses. In the laboratory, fear extinction is modeled by repeatedly presenting a fear-conditioned stimulus (CS)(More)
Recent case–control genome-wide association studies have linked common variants of TMEM132D (KIAA1944, MOLT) with panic disorder (PD), anxiety comorbidity in depression, and anxiety symptom severity in healthy and diseased subjects. 1 One risk genotype (rs11060369 AA) is associated with enhanced TMEM132D mRNA expression in the brain; brain mRNA expression(More)
Animal models and human functional imaging data implicate the dopamine system in mediating enhanced encoding of novel stimuli into human memory. A separate line of investigation suggests an association between a functional polymorphism in the promoter region for the human dopamine 4 receptor gene (DRD4) and sensitivity to novelty. We demonstrate, in two(More)
Being a complex phenotype with substantial heritability, anxiety and related phenotypes are characterized by a complex polygenic basis. Thereby, one candidate pathway is neuronal nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and accordingly, rodent studies have identified NO synthase (NOS-I), encoded by NOS1, as a strong molecular candidate for modulating anxiety and(More)
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