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Although imidazoline sites have been the subject of research for several years, there is still controversy about their structure, diversity and physiology. The I1 site is thought to exist principally as a binding site and is widely purported to play a role in controlling systemic blood pressure, although this is still unclear. The majority of I2 sites are(More)
The immunopathology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has proved difficult to study in man because of the limited availability of appropriate samples, but we now report a detailed study charting the evolution of insulitis in human T1D. Pancreas samples removed post-mortem from 29 patients (mean age 11.7 years) with recent-onset T1D were analysed by(More)
Heterozygous coding mutations in the INS gene that encodes preproinsulin were recently shown to be an important cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. These dominantly acting mutations prevent normal folding of proinsulin, which leads to beta-cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. We now report 10 different recessive INS mutations in(More)
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by the selective destruction of pancreatic beta (β) cells. The understanding of the aetiology of this disease has increased dramatically in recent years by the study of tissue recovered from patients, from analysis of the responses of isolated islet and β-cells in tissue culture and via the use(More)
The generation of an autoimmune response against islet beta-cells is central to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and this response is driven by the stimulation of autoreactive lymphocytes by components of the beta-cells themselves. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the beta-cell destruction which leads to type 1 diabetes and(More)
Intracellular production of nitric oxide (NO) is thought to mediate the pancreatic B-cell-directed cytotoxicity of cytokines in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and recent evidence has indicated that this may involve induction of apoptosis. A primary effect of NO is to activate soluble guanylyl cyclase leading to increased cGMP levels and this effect(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Sirtuin (SIRT)3 is a mitochondrial protein deacetylase that regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. As chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction are key factors mediating pancreatic beta cell impairment in type 2 diabetes, we investigated the role of SIRT3 in the maintenance of beta(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS In adults, the rate of beta cell replication is normally very low, but recent evidence suggests that it may increase during insulitis. We therefore studied tissue from donors with recent-onset type 1 diabetes to establish whether islet cell proliferation is increased during the disease process. METHODS Paraffin-embedded pancreatic sections(More)