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Environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens) are a diverse group of chemicals that mimic estrogenic actions. Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer of plastics used in many consumer products, has estrogenic activity in vitro. The pituitary lactotroph is a well established estrogen-responsive cell. The overall objective was to examine the effects of BPA on PRL release and(More)
The phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide, corresponding to the C-terminal 11 amino acids of bovine rhodopsin (VII, residues 338-348), was studied under different conditions. The peptide was only phosphorylated in the presence of photoactivated rhodopsin. Using the same protocol, 12 other peptides, mapping in the rhodopsin C-terminal, were screened for(More)
The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a ~1.5 MDa multiprotein E3 ligase enzyme that regulates cell division by promoting timely ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of key cell cycle regulatory proteins. Inhibition of human APC/C CDH1 during interphase by Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 (EMI1) is essential for accurate coordination of DNA synthesis and(More)
For many E3 ligases, a mobile RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain stimulates ubiquitin (Ub) transfer from a thioester-linked E2∼Ub intermediate to a lysine on a remotely bound disordered substrate. One such E3 is the gigantic, multisubunit 1.2-MDa anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), which controls cell division by ubiquitinating cell cycle(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs) are central mediators of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway and phosphorylate downstream substrates that are crucial for regulating smooth muscle tone, platelet activation, nociception and memory formation. As one of the main receptors for cGMP, PKGs mediate most of the effects of cGMP elevating drugs, such(More)
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome bound to CDC20 (APC/C CDC20) initiates anaphase by ubiquitylating B-type cyclins and securin. During chromosome bi-orientation, CDC20 assembles with MAD2, BUBR1 and BUB3 into a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) which inhibits substrate recruitment to the APC/C. APC/C activation depends on MCC disassembly, which has(More)
Protein ubiquitination involves E1, E2, and E3 trienzyme cascades. E2 and RING E3 enzymes often collaborate to first prime a substrate with a single ubiquitin (UB) and then achieve different forms of polyubiquitination: multiubiquitination of several sites and elongation of linkage-specific UB chains. Here, cryo-EM and biochemistry show that the human E3(More)
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) pose a threat to public health because of their ability to confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins such as cefotaxime. The CTX-M β-lactamases are the most widespread ESBL enzymes among antibiotic resistant bacteria. Many of the active site residues are conserved between the CTX-M family and non-ESBL(More)
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