Learn More
Radiation exposure of aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation is regulated in Europe by the European Community Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM and implemented into law in almost every country of the European Union. While the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) leads on average to an exposure of about 3 mSv per year, solar cosmic radiation can lead to 1 mSv per(More)
INTRODUCTION Radiation doses received onboard aircraft are monitored in Europe to protect aircrew in accordance with a European Union directive. The French Aviation Authorities have developed a system called SIEVERT, using calculation codes to monitor effective radiation doses. METHODS For the galactic cosmic ray component, a 3-D world map of effective(More)
Measurements during solar particle events with dosemeters flying permanently on-board Concorde are used to develop a semi-empirical model, called SiGLE. The model is intended to calculate, for a given flight plan, the dose equivalent received during a solar particle event observed with ground-based neutron monitors. It is successfully in operation in the(More)
The influence of model flexibility upon simulated viscosity was investigated. NEMD simulations of viscosity were performed on seven pure fluids using three different models for each: one with rigid bonds and angles, one with flexible angles and rigid bonds, and one with flexible bonds and angles. Three nonpolar fluids (propane, n-butane and isobutane), two(More)
Dose assessment procedures for cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew have been introduced in most European countries in accordance with the corresponding European directive and national regulations. However, the radiation exposure due to solar particle events is still a matter of scientific research. Here we describe the European research project(More)
Flight personnel are likely to receive an effective dose of several mSv in 1 y of professional activity. In France, the order of 8 December 2003 requires airline companies to monitor the exposure of their flight personnel. This is why public authorities have made the SIEVERT system (a system for evaluating exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport),(More)
This paper describes a searchable Solar Feature Catalogue (SFC) created using automated pattern recognition techniques from digitized solar images. The techniques were developed for detection of sunspots, active regions, filaments and line-of-sight magnetic neutral lines using Ca II K1, Ca II K3 and Ha solar images from the Meudon Observatory and white(More)
Increasing complexity and manufacturing costs, along with the fundamental limits of planar CMOS devices, threaten to slow down the historical pace of progress in the semiconductor industry. We report herein an efficient, low-cost, " greener " way to fabricate dual-damascene copper (Cu) on-chip interconnect or Back-End-Of-the-Line (BEOL) structures using a(More)
The study of naturally occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on-board the aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and(More)
  • 1