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The present experiment investigated the effects of exposure to inescapable shocks (IS) on subsequent behavior in an elevated plus-maze and on shuttlebox-escape performance in male and female rats. In the elevated plus-maze, exposure to IS resulted in suppression of "total number of arm entries" and "rearings" in males but not in females. In addition "time(More)
The role of sex hormones in sexuality and mood across the menstrual cycle was investigated. Twenty-one normal health women were followed for one menstrual cycle. Blood samples were taken frequently, and analyzed for estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin. A diary(More)
Recently, the vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the rat brain was shown to be restored in senescent rats following long-term testosterone administration. In order to investigate whether this restoration is accompanied by an improvement in learning and memory, both sham- and testosterone-treated young (4.5 months), middle-aged (20 months), and aged (31(More)
In an attempt to study the possible role of active sleep in brain development, male rats were injected twice daily with chlorimipramine, a potent monoamine reuptake blocker, from 1 week to 3 weeks of postnatal age. AS was reduced to less than 10% of total sleep time, the level found in mature rats. Most of the AS reduction was compensated for by quiet sleep(More)
The sex-dependent effects of acute restraint (RT) on nociceptive and pituitary-adrenal responses were investigated in the rat. In a first experiment, the effect of 30 min RT on pain sensitivity was evaluated through repeated use of the tail withdrawal test during and after treatment. RT induced an increase in the nociceptive threshold, i.e., analgesia, in(More)
It is still unclear whether sex differences in cognitive functioning are mainly due to perinatal organizing effects of sex hormones on the brain, or to activating effects in adulthood. In a group of 22 female-to-male transsexuals a battery of visuospatial and verbal ability tests was administered twice: shortly before and 3 months after the start of(More)
Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to different radial-maze procedures to determine whether or not behavioral differences would be observed. They were allowed free access to all arms of the maze in the first experimental condition, while they were confined between choices to the central platform for 1 and 15 sec during the second and third(More)
The relative contribution of organizing and activating effects of sex hormones to the establishment of gender differences in behaviour is still unclear. In a group of 35 female-to-male transsexuals and a group of 15 male-to-female transsexuals a large battery of tests on aggression, sexual motivation and cognitive functioning was administered twice: shortly(More)
Based on neonatal examination at birth, it has been estimated that epileptic women have a 2-3 times greater risk of giving birth to an infant with congenital anomalies. But anticonvulsant drugs may also have more subtle influences on the developing foetus which are not visible at birth but only emerge later in life. Evidence for these functional teratogenic(More)