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Immune responses are normally targeted against microbial pathogens and not self-antigens by mechanisms that are only partly understood. Here we define a newly discovered pathway that prevents autoimmunity by limiting the levels on T lymphocytes of aco-stimulatory receptor, the inducible T-cell co-stimulator(ICOS). In sanroque mice homozygous for an M199R(More)
Seven subjects 18 to 66 years old underwent 360 degrees rotation at a constant velocity of 3 degrees/sec, in 27 trials beginning randomly right ear down or left ear down. A camera on the rotating chair photographed both eyes every 10 degrees. Dual projectors measured counterrolling, the image from one projector being aligned and rotated until it was(More)
Hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by abnormal and devastating susceptibility to a narrow spectrum of infections, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Recent investigations have identified mutations in STAT3 in the majority of HIES patients studied. Despite the identification of the(More)
Engagement of cytokine receptors by specific ligands activate Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. The exact roles of STATs in human lymphocyte behavior remain incompletely defined. Interleukin (IL)-21 activates STAT1 and STAT3 and has emerged as a potent regulator of B cell differentiation. We have(More)
This paper considers potential problems encountered when using the Kety approach to measure perfusion in small laboratory animals with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tracer uptake methods: a) the need to measure the arterial input function (AIF) in each animal; b) sensitivity to perfusion heterogeneity; c) sensitivity to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR);(More)
Multiple endocrine neoplasis type 2A (MEN2A) is one of several kinds of cancers that appear to be inherited in an autosomally dominant fashion. We have assigned the MEN2A locus to chromosome 10 by linkage with a new DNA marker (D10S5). The linkage led us to investigate other chromosome 10 markers and demonstrate linkage between the disease locus and the(More)
A family is described in which Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is inherited as an X-linked dominant mutation (CMT2). Ten DNA marker loci on the X chromosome were used to map the disease locus by linkage analysis. The DXYS1 sequence at Xq13 was found to be linked to the CMT2 locus at an estimated distance of 6 cM (Zmax = 2.87 at theta max = 0.06). The data also(More)
The conduction velocity and other physiological characteristics of the first order horizontal canal afferents were studied in 24 anesthesized cats. From their spontaneous discharge patterns, neurons were classified into three groups: regular, intermediate and irregular; The irregular units tended to have a low resting rate, high sensitivity to angular(More)
Whole-volume tumor perfusion measured using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) observation of deuterated water uptake after intravenous injection and a common arterial input function (AIF) derived from AIF estimates in a small set of animals was compared with perfusion measured by the commonly used microsphere method in rat 9L gliosarcomas. Tumor perfusion(More)
OBJECTIVE Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation has recently gained widespread enthusiasm, particularly in the perspective to use them as potential alternative cell sources for hepatocytes in cell based therapy, mainly because of their capability of hepatogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. But some challenges remain to be(More)