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Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a paradigm pathogen with multivalent binding sites for the sphingolipid GM1, via which it induces its endocytosis for infection. Here we report that SV40 also utilizes cell surface integrins to activate signaling networks required for infection, even in the absence of the previously implicated glycosphingolipids. We identify ILK,(More)
The human polyoma viruses JCV and BKV establish asymptomatic persistent infection in 65%-90% of humans but can cause severe illness under immunosuppressive conditions. The mechanisms by which these viruses evade immune recognition are unknown. Here we show that a viral miRNA identical in sequence between JCV and BKV targets the stress-induced ligand ULBP3,(More)
Traditionally, the most common methods used to titrate virus stocks are the plaque assay and the hemagglutination assay. The protocol presented here is based on the detection of viral-expressed proteins in infected cells by flow cytometry. It is simpler and more rapid than the traditional plaque-forming assay and it enables high-throughput analyses.
The infection process by simian virus 40 (SV40) and entry of its genome into nondividing cells are only partly understood. Infection begins by binding to GM1 receptors at the cell surface, cellular entry via caveolar invaginations, and trafficking to the endoplasmic reticulum, where the virus disassembles. To gain a deeper insight into the contribution of(More)
SV40 titer is determined traditionally by the conventional plaque assay. Plaques appear after several rounds of infection and the assay takes around two weeks, which may delay research. A simpler assay was developed, based on detection of T-antigen in the infected cells by flow cytometry. Cells grown in 6-well plates are infected with serial dilutions of(More)
Viruses that replicate in the nucleus need to pass the nuclear envelope barrier during infection. Research in recent years indicates that the nuclear envelope is a major hurdle for many viruses. This review describes strategies to overcome this obstacle developed by seven virus families: herpesviridae, adenoviridae, orthomyxoviridae, lentiviruses (which are(More)
A pathogen's ability to engage host receptors is a critical determinant of its host range and interspecies transmissibility, key issues for understanding emerging diseases. However, the identification of host receptors, which are also attractive drug targets, remains a major challenge. Our structural bioinformatics studies reveal that both bacterial and(More)
Polyomaviruses are a diverse family of viruses which are prevalent in the human population. However, the interactions of these viruses with the immune system are not well characterized. We have previously shown that two human polyomaviruses, JC and BK, use an identical microRNA to evade immune attack by Natural Killer (NK) cells. We showed that this viral(More)
The discovery of how a pathogen invades a cell requires one to determine which host cell receptors are exploited. This determination is a challenging problem because the receptor is invariably a membrane protein, which represents an Achilles heel in proteomics. We have developed a universal platform for high-throughput expression and interaction studies of(More)
INTRODUCTION Medical systems worldwide are facing the new threat of morbidity associated with the deliberate dispersal of microbiological agents by terrorists. Rapid diagnosis and containment of this type of unannounced attack is based on the knowledge and capabilities of medical staff. In 2004, the knowledge of emergency department physicians of anthrax(More)