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This document describes the current status of the CORS program and some anticipated enhancements. The document addresses (1) the various utilities for accessing CORS information, (2) how CORS positions and velocities are determined, (3) the web-based utility-called OPUS-for automatically computing accurate positional coordinates with CORS data, (4) the(More)
officially began public operation of the web-based On-line Positioning User Service (OPUS) in March 2001 as a means to provide GPS users easier access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). Through OPUS, our goal is to provide the means to accurately, reliably , and quickly obtain consistent geo-detic positions. OPUS allows users to submit their(More)
We read with interest the article by McBride et al, which reported that only 4% of 127 patients and relatives in an outpatient clinic post hip replacement following a hip fracture correctly acknowledged one-year mortality for hip fractures to be approximately 30%. Poor knowledge retention of doc-tor–patient consultations (20–60%) 1 does not explain this(More)
A single exposure to menthol can, depending on concentration, enhance both cool sensations and encourage body heat storage. This study tested whether there is an habituation in either response after repeated-daily exposures. Twenty-two participants were assigned to one of three spray groups: Control (CON; n=6), 0.05% L-menthol (M(0.05%); n=8), and 0.2%(More)
Recently, a new set of 14 transformation parameters was jointly adopted by National Resources Canada (NRCan) and the U. Although a unique set of similarity transformation equations could be applied everywhere to transform positional coordinates between these two terrestrial frames, a more consistent set of NAD 83 coordinates can be obtained if, locally,(More)
2 Highlights  A single skin surface exposure to menthol enhances cool sensations and heat storage  Heat storage by menthol is mediated by a vasoconstrictor response  Repeated menthol exposure causes an habituation of cool sensation but not heat storage  0.2 % menthol activation of thermoreceptors equals a 0.5°C fall in skin temperature Abstract (250(More)
SUMMARY NOAA " s National Geodetic Survey developed and has operated the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) since March 2001. This web-based tool provides accurate, reliable and consistent geodetic-quality coordinates in a global reference frame from GNSS data collected by a single, multi-frequency receiver. The original version of OPUS was primarily(More)
SUMMARY During the last year, a number of significant milestones related to terrestrial reference frames were achieved. One of the most notable changes took place on April 17, 2011, when the International GNSS Service (IGS) adopted the IGS08 reference frame, a frame defined by a subset of 232 geocentric stations from the International Terrestrial Reference(More)
The inverse transformation of coordinates, from Cartesian to curvilinear geodetic, or symbolically (x,y,z)-(l,j,h) has been extensively researched in the geodetic literature. However, published formulations require that the application must be deterministically implemented point-by-point individually. Recently, and thanks to GPS technology, scientists have(More)
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