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MOTIVATION Seq-Gen is a program that will simulate the evolution of nucleotide sequences along a phylogeny, using common models of the substitution process. A range of models of molecular evolution are implemented, including the general reversible model. Nucleotide frequencies and other parameters of the model may be given and site-specific rate(More)
A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread rapidly across the globe. Judging its pandemic potential is difficult with limited data, but nevertheless essential to inform appropriate health responses. By analyzing the outbreak in Mexico, early data on international spread, and viral genetic diversity, we make an early assessment of transmissibility and(More)
Different regions along nucleotide sequences are often subject to different evolutionary forces. Recombination will result in regions having different evolutionary histories, while selection can cause regions to evolve at different rates. This paper presents a statistical method based on likelihood for detecting such processes by identifying the regions(More)
A method for the estimation of population dynamic history from sequence data is described and used to investigate the past population dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes A and B. Using both gag and env gene alignments the effective population size of each subtype is estimated and found to be surprisingly small. This may be a result of the selective sweep of(More)
This Review describes the pathways that are used to insert newly synthesized proteins into the cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria, and provides insight into the function of two of the evolutionarily conserved translocases that catalyse this process. These highly sophisticated translocases are responsible for decoding the topogenic sequences within membrane(More)
BACKGROUND In the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) approach to HIV and AIDS estimates, estimates of adult prevalence produced by the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) or the Workbook are transferred to Spectrum to estimate the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the number of people living with HIV by age and sex, new(More)
A central question in population ecology is the role of 'exogenous' environmental factors versus density-dependent 'endogenous' biological factors in driving changes in population numbers. This question is also central to infectious disease epidemiology, where changes in disease incidence due to behavioural or environmental change must be distinguished from(More)
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is efficacious against paralytic disease, but its effect on mucosal immunity is debated. We assessed the efficacy of IPV in boosting mucosal immunity. Participants received IPV, bivalent 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV), or no vaccine. A bOPV challenge was administered 4 weeks later, and excretion was assessed 3,(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal immunity induced by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is imperfect and wanes with time, permitting transmission of infection by immunised children. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) does not induce an intestinal mucosal immune response, but could boost protection in children who are mucosally primed through previous exposure to OPV. We(More)