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[1] We present a model study of carbon monoxide for 1988–1997 using the GEOS-Chem 3-D model driven by assimilated meteorological data, with time-varying emissions from biomass burning and from fossil fuel and industry, overhead ozone columns, and methane. The hydroxyl radical is calculated interactively using a chemical parameterization to capture chemical(More)
The generation of an e.m.g. can be modelled by linear filtering of N impulse trains, regarded as the neural inputs to N motor units, where the e.m.g. is the sum of the outputs of the N filters. Starting from this model, it is shown that not only are the shapes of the N action potential images as viewed by the electrodes an important factor in defining the(More)
Total column amounts of CO, CH 4 , CO 2 and N 2 O retrieved from SCIAMACHY nadir observations in its near-infrared channels have been compared to data from a ground-based quasi-global network of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. The SCIAMACHY data considered here have been produced by three different retrieval al-5 gorithms, WFM-DOAS (version(More)
Embryogenic tissue from six genotypes of Pinus patula (Schiede et Deppe) was subjected to a number of treatments to improve both somatic embryo maturation and germination protocols. The use of a slightly modified 240 medium supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEC) significantly improved both the number and quality of embryos produced, especially at the(More)
The development of an optical fiber transducer for use in biomedical applications has been presented. The design was targeted for use in the upper airways of patients with sleep disorders stemming from partial or total occlusion of the airway. The transducer's preliminary specification was suited for that of upper airway manometry: a resolution of 10 Pa(More)
Laser reshaping using low laser energy levels was performed on the cartilage of ten porcine ears. The ears were examined up to 4 months after laser reshaping and the stability of the reshaping was assessed by photography and casts obtained from alginate impressions of the ears. The cartilage was also studied histologically in three animals at 3 weeks, 8(More)
This paper relates to the use of knowledge-based signal processing techniques in the decomposition of EMG signals. The aim of the research is to automatically decompose EMG signals recorded at force levels up to 20 per cent maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) into their constitutent motor unit action potentials (MUAPS), and to display the MUAP shapes and(More)
The steady-state and small-scale dynamic mechanical properties of human rectus abdominis and intercostal muscle have been investigated by testing small biopsiesin vitro, taken during normal surgery. It has proved possible to obtain valid data on the tension/length/stimulation-rate relationship at body temperature for up to 24 hours after removal. The twitch(More)
The paper describes the design and construction of a selective surface electrode for use in a clinical environment. The main criterion of the design was to enable the recognition of individual motor unit action potential trains (MUAPTs) at moderate force levels. The main features of the electrode are, first, a small concentric bipolar arrangement to avoid(More)