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This study aims to analyse larval habitat preferences and landscape level population structure of the threatened Marsh Fritillary butterfly, Euphydryas aurinia, and discusses implications for the conservation and management of this strongly declining species in central Europe. Whereas current management strategies are mainly based on studies of habitat(More)
At depths below 10 m, reefs are dominated by blue-green light because seawater selectively absorbs the longer, 'red' wavelengths beyond 600 nm from the downwelling sunlight. Consequently, the visual pigments of many reef fish are matched to shorter wavelengths, which are transmitted better by water. Combining the typically poor long-wavelength sensitivity(More)
Sexual selection is often quantified using Bateman gradients, which represent sex-specific regression slopes of reproductive success on mating success and thus describe the expected fitness returns from mating more often. Although the analytical framework for Bateman gradients aimed at covering all sexual systems, empirical studies are biased toward(More)
In order to improve our understanding of habitat preferences and optimal management of open woodland insects, we analyse patch occupancy and oviposition electivity of the endangered Duke of Burgundy butterfly, Hamearis lucina, in three regions across German habitat types. Some newly available forest clearings created by a severe winter storm in the(More)
The study of sexually antagonistic (SA) traits remains largely limited to dioecious (separate sex), mobile animals. However, the occurrence of sexual conflict is restricted neither by breeding system (the mode of sexual reproduction, e.g. dioecy or hermaphroditism) nor by sessility. Here, we synthesize how variation in breeding system can affect the(More)
References 1. Svetec, N., and Ferveur, J.-F. (2005). Social experience and pheromonal perception can change male-male interactions in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Exp. Biol. 208, 891–898. 2. Xu, A., Park, S.K., D’Mello, S., Kim, E., Wang, Q. and Pikielny, C.W. (2002). Novel genes expressed in subsets of chemosensory sensilla on the front legs of male(More)
Reciprocity constitutes the prevalent mating mechanism among simultaneous hermaphrodites. Yet, when copulations in the female role confer fitness costs through male manipulation, it becomes advantageous sometimes to mate unilaterally in the male role only. In the sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum, acting males stab their partner with a bipartite penis,(More)
Copulation can involve the wounding of the mating partner by specialised devices. This type of mating, which we term traumatic mating, has been regarded as exceptional. Its prevalence, however, has not been compared across taxa, nor have its functions and putative evolutionary pathways. A categorisation has been lacking to date. We here show that traumatic(More)
Why do some marine fishes exhibit striking patterns of natural red fluorescence? In this study, we contrast two non-exclusive hypotheses: (i) that UV absorption by fluorescent pigments offers significant photoprotection in shallow water, where UV irradiance is strongest; and (ii) that red fluorescence enhances visual contrast at depths below -10 m, where(More)
Costs and benefits associated with matings and the effects of mating frequency on fitness commonly differ between the sexes. As a result, outcrossing simultaneous hermaphrodites may prefer to copulate in the more rewarding sex role, generating conflicts over sperm donation and sperm receipt between mates. Because recent sex role preference models remain(More)