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This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
The core molecular clockwork in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is based on autoregulatory feedback loops of transcriptional activators (CLOCK/NPAS2 and BMAL1) and inhibitors (mPER1-2 and mCRY1-2). To synchronize the phase of the molecular clockwork to the environmental day and night condition, light at dusk and dawn increases mPer expression. However,(More)
In several mammalian species, the retina contains an autonomous circadian clock and is capable of synthesizing melatonin. The function of circadian clocks depends on interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops involving several clock genes. Here we investigated the expression of two clock genes (Per1, Cry2) and the level of phosphorylated (p)(More)
Photoperiodic regulation of reproduction in birds and mammals involves thyrotropin beta-chain (TSHb), which is secreted from the pars tuberalis (PT) and controls the expression of deiodinase type 2 and 3 in the ependymal cell layer of the infundibular recess (EC) via TSH receptors (TSHRs). To analyze the impact of melatonin and the molecular clockwork on(More)
Cadherins, Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion molecules, are crucial for cell-cell junctions and remodeling. Cadherins form inter-junctional lattices by the formation of both cis and trans dimers. Here, we directly visualize and quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of wild-type and dimer mutant N-cadherin interactions using time-lapse imaging of junction assembly,(More)
Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell(More)
Circadian rhythms of many body functions in mammals are controlled by a master pacemaker, residing in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which synchronises peripheral oscillators. The SCN and peripheral oscillators share several components of the molecular clockwork and comprise transcriptional activators (BMAL1 and CLOCK/NPAS2) and inhibitors(More)
Conventional two-dimensional cell monolayers do not provide the geometrical, biochemical and mechanical cues found in real tissues. Cells in real tissues interact through chemical and mechanical stimuli with adjacent cells and via the extracellular matrix. Such a highly interconnected communication network extends along all three dimensions. This(More)
Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM-CFs are forming networks(More)
Due to the large amount of data produced by advanced microscopy, automated image analysis is crucial in modern biology. Most applications require reliable cell nuclei segmentation. However, in many biological specimens cell nuclei are densely packed and appear to touch one another in the images. Therefore, a major difficulty of three-dimensional cell nuclei(More)