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This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
Conventional two-dimensional cell monolayers do not provide the geometrical, biochemical and mechanical cues found in real tissues. Cells in real tissues interact through chemical and mechanical stimuli with adjacent cells and via the extracellular matrix. Such a highly interconnected communication network extends along all three dimensions. This(More)
The core molecular clockwork in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is based on autoregulatory feedback loops of transcriptional activators (CLOCK/NPAS2 and BMAL1) and inhibitors (mPER1-2 and mCRY1-2). To synchronize the phase of the molecular clockwork to the environmental day and night condition, light at dusk and dawn increases mPer expression. However,(More)
Circadian rhythms of many body functions in mammals are controlled by a master pacemaker, residing in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which synchronises peripheral oscillators. The SCN and peripheral oscillators share several components of the molecular clockwork and comprise transcriptional activators (BMAL1 and CLOCK/NPAS2) and inhibitors(More)
In several mammalian species, the retina contains an autonomous circadian clock and is capable of synthesizing melatonin. The function of circadian clocks depends on interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops involving several clock genes. Here we investigated the expression of two clock genes (Per1, Cry2) and the level of phosphorylated (p)(More)
—This paper investigates an application-oriented bandwidth allocation scheme to ensure fairness among queues with diversified quality-of-serice (QoS) requirements in EPONs. Formerly, differentiated services (DiffServ) were suggested to be used in EPON so as to provision some queues with higher QoS over others. However, owing to the coarse granularity,(More)
Due to the large amount of data produced by advanced microscopy, automated image analysis is crucial in modern biology. Most applications require reliable cell nuclei segmentation. However, in many biological specimens cell nuclei are densely packed and appear to touch one another in the images. Therefore, a major difficulty of three-dimensional cell nuclei(More)
Cadherins, Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion molecules, are crucial for cell-cell junctions and remodeling. Cadherins form inter-junctional lattices by the formation of both cis and trans dimers. Here, we directly visualize and quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of wild-type and dimer mutant N-cadherin interactions using time-lapse imaging of junction assembly,(More)
Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM-CFs are forming networks(More)
The complex cellular networks within tumors, the cytokine milieu, and tumor immune escape mechanisms affecting infiltration and anti-tumor activity of immune cells are of great interest to understand tumor formation and to decipher novel access points for cancer therapy. However, cellular in vitro assays, which rely on monolayer cultures of mammalian cell(More)