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This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically(More)
The core molecular clockwork in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is based on autoregulatory feedback loops of transcriptional activators (CLOCK/NPAS2 and BMAL1) and inhibitors (mPER1-2 and mCRY1-2). To synchronize the phase of the molecular clockwork to the environmental day and night condition, light at dusk and dawn increases mPer expression. However,(More)
—This paper investigates an application-oriented bandwidth allocation scheme to ensure fairness among queues with diversified quality-of-serice (QoS) requirements in EPONs. Formerly, differentiated services (DiffServ) were suggested to be used in EPON so as to provision some queues with higher QoS over others. However, owing to the coarse granularity,(More)
Conventional two-dimensional cell monolayers do not provide the geometrical, biochemical and mechanical cues found in real tissues. Cells in real tissues interact through chemical and mechanical stimuli with adjacent cells and via the extracellular matrix. Such a highly interconnected communication network extends along all three dimensions. This(More)
Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell(More)
Photoperiodic regulation of reproduction in birds and mammals involves thyrotropin beta-chain (TSHb), which is secreted from the pars tuberalis (PT) and controls the expression of deiodinase type 2 and 3 in the ependymal cell layer of the infundibular recess (EC) via TSH receptors (TSHRs). To analyze the impact of melatonin and the molecular clockwork on(More)
In several mammalian species, the retina contains an autonomous circadian clock and is capable of synthesizing melatonin. The function of circadian clocks depends on interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops involving several clock genes. Here we investigated the expression of two clock genes (Per1, Cry2) and the level of phosphorylated (p)(More)
Circadian rhythms of many body functions in mammals are controlled by a master pacemaker, residing in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which synchronises peripheral oscillators. The SCN and peripheral oscillators share several components of the molecular clockwork and comprise transcriptional activators (BMAL1 and CLOCK/NPAS2) and inhibitors(More)
Due to the large amount of data produced by advanced microscopy, automated image analysis is crucial in modern biology. Most applications require reliable cell nuclei segmentation. However, in many biological specimens cell nuclei are densely packed and appear to touch one another in the images. Therefore, a major difficulty of three-dimensional cell nuclei(More)
Dysregulation of the basal autophagic flux has been linked to several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In addition, autophagy has profound effects on the response of tumor cells to therapy. Hence, the search for pharmacological modulators of autophagy is of great clinical relevance. We established a drug screening(More)