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The numbers and proportion of neurons in areas and regions of cortex were determined for a single cortical hemisphere from two prosimian galagos, one New World owl monkey, one Old World macaque monkey, and one baboon. The results suggest that there is a common plan of cortical organization across the species examined here and also differences that suggest(More)
Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is a technique that was developed to derive movement representations (motor maps) of the motor cortex, and was originally used in cats and the capuchin monkey. In more modern experiments, ICMS has been used in rats and mice to assess and interpret plasticity of motor maps in response to experimental manipulation;(More)
It is of critical importance to understand the numbers and distributions of neurons and non-neurons in the cerebral cortex because cell numbers are reduced with normal aging and by diseases of the CNS. The isotropic fractionator method provides a faster way of estimating numbers of total cells and neurons in whole brains and dissected brain parts. Several(More)
Improving functional recovery following cerebral strokes in humans will likely involve augmenting brain plasticity. This study examined skilled forelimb behavior, neocortical evoked potentials, and movement thresholds to assess cortical electrical stimulation concurrent with rehabilitative forelimb usage following a focal ischemic insult. Adult rats were(More)
While a substantial literature demonstrates the effect of differential experience on development of mammalian sensory cortices and plasticity of adult motor cortex, characterization of differential experience on the functional development of motor cortex is meager. We first determined when forelimb movement representations (motor maps) could be detected in(More)
1. Phosphonate analogues of glutamate have been tested and compared as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists in electrophysiological and binding experiments. The compounds tested were three established NMDA antagonists: D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (D-AP5), DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (DL-AP7), 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate(More)
Kindling of the sensorimotor neocortex has been found to result in reorganization of the somatotopic map of movement representations as well as disruptions of skilled forelimb behaviours. It has been suggested that the repeated seizures induced during kindling altered motor maps, thereby disrupting the motor engram necessary for the production of skilled(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether seizure activity, repeatedly elicited in the hippocampus, could alter the functional organization of neocortical movement representations (motor maps) and whether a relation exists between the number of afterdischarges recorded in the sensorimotor neocortex and the size of the motor maps. METHODS We electrically kindled the(More)
There is a need for acute and chronic stimulation of the brain within the MRI for studies of epilepsy, as well as deep brain stimulation for movement and behavioral disorders. This work describes the production and characteristics of carbon fiber-based electrodes for acute and chronic stimulation in the brain. Increasing MRI field strengths are making it(More)
Dexamethasone (DEX) and betamethasone (BETA) are synthetic glucocorticoids used clinically to reduce morbidity and mortality in infants at risk of premature birth. While their main role is to facilitate lung development, their effect on the developing nervous system and seizure susceptibility is unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that(More)