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Temperatures obtained from early Cassini infrared observations of Titan show a stratopause at an altitude of 310 kilometers (and 186 kelvin at 15 degrees S). Stratospheric temperatures are coldest in the winter northern hemisphere, with zonal winds reaching 160 meters per second. The concentrations of several stratospheric organic compounds are enhanced at(More)
The propagation of two orthogonally polarized shear waves, or shear-wave splitting, is arguably the most robust indication of seismic anisotropy in the Earth. This splitting can be parameterized in terms of the polarization of the fast shear-wave ␾ and the lag time between fast and slow components dt. These two parameters provide constraints on the(More)
Saturn's poles exhibit an unexpected symmetry in hot, cyclonic polar vortices, despite huge seasonal differences in solar flux. The cores of both vortices are depleted in phosphine gas, probably resulting from subsidence of air into the troposphere. The warm cores are present throughout the upper troposphere and stratosphere at both poles. The thermal(More)
Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to(More)
Stratospheric temperatures on Saturn imply a strong decay of the equatorial winds with altitude. If the decrease in winds reported from recent Hubble Space Telescope images is not a temporal change, then the features tracked must have been at least 130 kilometers higher than in earlier studies. Saturn's south polar stratosphere is warmer than predicted from(More)
Mid-infrared limb spectra in the range 600–1400 cm −1 taken with the Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board the Cassini spacecraft were used to determine vertical profiles of HCN, HC 3 N, C 2 H 2 , and temperature in Titan's atmosphere. Both high (0.5 cm −1) and low (13.5 cm −1) spectral resolution data were used. The 0.5 cm −1 data gave profiles(More)
Mid-and far-infrared spectra from the Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) have been used to determine volume mixing ratios of nitriles in Titan's atmosphere. HCN, HC 3 N, C 2 H 2 , and temperature were derived from 2.5 cm −1 spectral resolution mid-IR mapping sequences taken during three flybys, which provide almost complete global coverage of Titan for(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) is suited to monitoring ground deformation on the scale of volcanic arcs, providing insight into the eruptive cycle over both long and short time periods. However, these measurements are often contaminated with atmospheric artefacts caused by changes in the refractivity of the atmosphere. Here, we(More)