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Despite longstanding evidence that hypoglycaemic neuronal injury is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that the excitotoxic neuronal death that follows GD (glucose deprivation) is initiated by glutamate extruded from astrocytes via system xc---an amino acid(More)
We recently demonstrated that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases system x(c)(-) (cystine/glutamate antiporter) activity in mixed cortical cell cultures, resulting in an increase in hypoxic neuronal injury when glutamate clearance is impaired. Herein, we demonstrate that neurons, astrocytes, and microglia all express system x(c)(-) subunits (xCT, 4F2hc, RBAT)(More)
The myelin sheath is an extension of the oligoddendrocyte (OL) plasma membrane enriched in lipids that ensheaths the axons of the central and peripheral nervous system. Here, we review the involvement of glycosphingolipids in myelin/OL functions, including the regulation of OL differentiation, lipid raft-mediated trafficking and signaling, and neuron-glia(More)
—The multiwavelength optical networking (MONET) consortium has demonstrated national-scale optical networking in a multilocation testbed in New Jersey. The demonstration involves transparent optical connections over path lengths as long as 2290 km, through several network elements (NE's) controlled by two interoperating network control and management (NC&M)(More)
Acute inflammation is a self-limiting, complex biological response mounted to combat pathogen invasion, to protect against tissue damage, and to promote tissue repair should it occur. However, unabated inflammation can be deleterious and contribute to injury and pathology. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a prototypical "pro-inflammatory" cytokine, is essential to(More)
The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc(-)) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we(More)
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