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During early brain development, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in cell migration, neuritogenesis, axon guidance and synapse formation, but the mechanisms which regulate NMDA receptor density and function remain unclear. The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism includes an agonist (quinolinic acid) and an antagonist (kynurenic(More)
Stromal-cell derived factor 1 (SDF1) is a CXC chemokine that binds and signals through the CXCR4 receptor, playing an essential role in embryonic B lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis and organogenesis. The CXCR4/SDF1 pathway is associated with several pathologies. CXCR4 serves as a fusion cofactor for lymphotropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and(More)
Induction of HIV expression through lymphocyte activation has been proposed as a strategy to purge latent reservoirs. Prostratin is a non-tumourogenic phorbol ester that delays HIV replication in vitro, but paradoxically activates HIV expression in latently infected cells. To get a better insight into the mechanisms of action of prostratin, we have analysed(More)
CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Chemokines exert anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro, both by displacing the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 from binding to CCR5 and by promoting CCR5 endocytosis, suggesting that they play a protective role in HIV infection. However, we(More)
A double-blinded, controlled study of vaccination of untreated patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with 3 doses of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) pulsed with heat inactivated autologous HIV-1 was performed. Therapeutic vaccinations were feasible, safe, and well tolerated. At week 24 after first(More)
Therapeutic immunization with autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with heat-inactivated autologous human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in 12 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was feasible, safe, and well tolerated. Virus was obtained during an initial(More)
Despite extensive efforts, a preventive HIV vaccine has not yet been obtained and remains the main challenge in the field of AIDS research. Empirical approaches which have proved successful for many vaccines are not sufficient to tackle HIV-1 and new strategies to design effective preventive AIDS vaccines are critical. To this aim, further understanding of(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector expressing HIV-1 antigens from clade B (MVA-B), a phase-I, doubled-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed. METHODS 30 HIV-uninfected volunteers at low risk of HIV-1 infection were randomly allocated to receive 3 intramuscular injections(More)
Several recent studies have identified HIV-infected patients able to produce a broad neutralizing response, and the detailed analyses of their sera have provided valuable information to improve future vaccine design. All these studies have excluded patients on antiretroviral treatment and with undetectable viral loads, who have an improved B cell profile(More)
BACKGROUND Cocoa and cocoa-based products contain different compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Polyphenols are the most frequently studied, and display antioxidant properties. Moreover, protein content is a very interesting source of antioxidant bioactive peptides, which can be used therapeutically for the prevention of age-related(More)