Néstor Toledo

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Sloths are among the most characteristic elements of the Cainozoic of South America and are represented, during the Pleistocene, by approximately nine genera of gigantic ground sloths (Megatheriidae and Mylodontidae). A few contributions have described their masticatory apparatus, but almost no attention has been paid to the reconstruction of the muzzle, an(More)
Early Miocene sloths are represented by a diversity of forms ranging from 38 to 95 kg, being registered mainly from Santacrucian Age deposits in southern-most shores of Patagonia, Argentina. Their postcranial skeleton differs markedly in shape from those of their closest living relatives (arboreal forms of less than 10 kg), Bradypus and Choloepus. In order(More)
Early Miocene sloths are represented by a diversity of forms ranging from 38 to 95 kg. Their forelimb bones differ in shape from those of their closest living relatives (less than 10 kg), Bradypus and Choloepus. Such differences in shape could be related to differences in substrate preference (arboreal, semiarboreal, or ground-dwelling) or substrate use(More)
This article presents a morphofunctional analysis of the hind limb of Santacrucian (Early Miocene) sloths from southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). These fossil sloths were mid sized to large animals, ranging from 40 to 120 kg, and their postcranial skeleton was markedly different in shape compared with that of extant tree sloths, which vary from 2 to 10 kg.(More)
The aim of this study is to analyze shape variation in the xenarthran femur to gain insights into their behavior and locomotion. Specimens of both Cingulata (armadillos and glyptodonts) and Pilosa (anteaters and sloths) were studied and within each group body mass varies by several orders of magnitude. The main focus of the analysis was allometric variation(More)
In this work we present the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), which were structurally and magnetically characterized. The use of iron salts and an organic acid (l-serine or ascorbic acid) as precursors under solvothermal conditions yielded these coated IONPs. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of FeO-1 and FeO-2 is(More)
The analysis of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans provides insight on the form of the tongue and its function in food intake and intraoral processing. The hyoid apparatus of xenarthrans is notable for fusion among its elements. The presence of a V-bone, a complex consisting of fused basihyal and thyrohyal bones, is a consistent and probably(More)
Extant species of Xenarthra represent a severely restricted sample of the total diversity achieved by the group. Given their shared history, the extant representatives of the three major groups of xenarthrans (Cingulata, Folivora, and Vermilingua) provide a valuable basis for paleobiological inference. However, many extinct taxa are morphologically so(More)
Recommended Citation Grass, Andy Darrell. "Inferring lifestyle and locomotor habits of extinct sloths through scapula morphology and implications for convergent evolution in extant sloths. ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am extremely grateful to my thesis committee, for working with me all these years on this project, and others. I am also extremely grateful to the(More)
The concept of a pedolateral pes in many extinct sloths began effectively with Owen’s mid-nineteenth century descriptions of Glossotherium and Megatherium. Pedolaterality denotes a pes that is habitually inverted, with the digital plane oriented nearly vertically so that weight is borne largely by the lateral digits (mainly metatarsal V) and the plantar(More)