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BACKGROUND In single-group studies, chromosomal rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) have been associated with marked clinical responses to crizotinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting ALK. Whether crizotinib is superior to standard chemotherapy with respect to efficacy is unknown. METHODS We conducted a phase 3,(More)
BACKGROUND Despite recent advances in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, there remains a need for effective treatments for progressive disease. We assessed the efficacy of pembrolizumab for patients with previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS We did this randomised, open-label, phase 2/3 study(More)
BACKGROUND The EGFR T790M mutation is the most common mechanism of drug resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients who have lung cancer with an EGFR mutation (EGFR-mutated lung cancer). In preclinical models, the EGFR inhibitor AZD9291 has been shown to be effective against both EGFR tyrosine kinase(More)
PURPOSE The ISTANA (IRESSA as Second-line Therapy in Advanced NSCLC-KoreA) study compared gefitinib with docetaxel in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) pretreated with platinum-based chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label phase III trial of gefitinib (250 mg/d) versus(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to investigate whether metabolic tumor volume (MTV) measured from [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) predicts short-term outcome to radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with pharyngeal cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The MTVs of(More)
PURPOSE Maintenance therapy is associated with improved survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but few studies have compared active agents in this setting. AVAPERL evaluated the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab with or without pemetrexed as continuation maintenance treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with advanced nonsquamous(More)
BACKGROUND Osimertinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that is selective for both EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The efficacy of osimertinib as compared with platinum-based therapy plus pemetrexed in such patients is unknown. METHODS In this(More)
BACKGROUND Gefitinib was compared with pemetrexed as second-line therapy in a clinically selected population previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. METHODS A phase 3 trial of gefitinib (250 mg/day) versus pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2) on day 1, every 3 weeks) was conducted in patients who had never smoked and who had advanced pulmonary(More)
INTRODUCTION This study is to evaluate whether thymidylate synthase (TS) or thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) protein expression can predict clinical outcomes for pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in patients with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS Two hundred eighty-five consecutive patients with nonsquamous NSCLC treated with(More)
BACKGROUND This randomized, phase II study investigated whether benefit could be obtained by giving vandetanib, an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial and epithelial growth factor receptor, as a maintenance treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS Patients were randomly assigned to either vandetanib or placebo after completion of 4(More)