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OBJECTIVES Papillary thyroid carcinomas frequently occur as two or more separate foci within the thyroid gland (18%-87%). However, those multifocal tumors are easy to be undetected by preoperative radiologic evaluations, which lead to remnant disease after initial surgery. We aimed to study the incidence of multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinomas(More)
PURPOSE For the exposure of the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, transmastoid approach is not usually considered due to being situated behind the superior semicircular canal. To obtain a better view and bigger field for manipulation in the peri-geniculate area during facial nerve decompression, retraction of temporal lobe after bony removal of(More)
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS The present study was conducted to develop a new method for maintaining the effect of botulinum toxin treatment for facial sequelae. We used a combination strategy including the administration of botulinum toxin three times at 6-8-month intervals followed by daily newly developed half-mirror biofeedback rehabilitation for about 2 years(More)
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