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In Experiment 1, 3-6-day-old rats were simultaneously exposed to an unfamiliar odor which they will normally avoid (orange extract) and the odor of maternal saliva, or to either orange alone or saliva alone. One hour later, in a two-odor choice test, those pups which were simultaneously exposed to orange and saliva exhibited an enhanced orientation to the(More)
In Part I of this study maternal behavior of 15 spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and 11 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat mothers was recorded throughout the preweaning period. SHR mothers were observed: 1) in arched-and blanket-nursing postures more often, and in passive-nursing posture less often, 2) licking their pups more often, and 3) resting less often. Further,(More)
In the spirit of adventure that has been characteristic of our Society, I am going to ask you to join me in a mental journey. The purpose is to try to look at something familiar in a new way. We are going to be looking at bereavement—something you all know a lot about—and I am going to try to get a different perspective on it by using information gathered(More)
BACKGROUND As a key regulator of serotonergic activity and target of many antidepressant treatments, the serotonin transporter (SERT) represents a potential mediator of anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. Using mice lacking the SERT (SERT KO), we examined the role of SERT function in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and serotonergic neuron(More)
Emissions of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) by rat pups (Rattus norvegicus) during hypothermia have consequences for recovery and warming. We investigated the effects on dam behavior of USVs emitted by 3- to 11-day-old pups during hypothermia at rectal temperatures between 18 and 22 degrees C. Rat dams were tested in a Y maze with the home cage as a start(More)
The presence of a passive (anesthetized) littermate greatly reduced the ultrasonic vocalization of 2-wk-old rat pups placed suddenly in an unfamiliar test box, without affecting other behavior. Isolated pups maintained high levels of vocalization over the 6-min test period while rapidly reducing other behavioral activities. A series of experimental(More)
Separation-induced calling in the young of many species can be modulated by the opioid system. Morphine reduces ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by isolated rat pups, an effect blocked by naltrexone. Central administration of the mu and delta opiate receptor agonists DAMGO and DPDPE reduce USV; kappa receptor agonist U50,488 increases them. We now(More)
To determine whether benzodiazepines (BDZs) quiet isolation distress in 10-day-old rat pups by causing a release of endogenous opioids, a blockade of the effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) by the opiate antagonist naltrexone (NLX) was sought. Nonsedating doses of morphine (MOR) (0.125 mg/kg) and CDP (2.0 mg/kg) were equally effective in reducing ultrasonic(More)
The presence of a single anesthetized littermate significantly reduced the rate of ultrasonic vocalization by 10-day-old pups isolated in a novel environment. Naltrexone (1.0 mg/kg) returned the vocalization rate to the level of pups tested alone and disrupted the maintenance of body contact between the test pup and a companion. This suggests that the(More)