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Posture, ventilation, and acid-base balance using auricular venous blood values (pH, lactate, base excess [BE], HCO(3)(-), PO(2), SO(2), and PCO(2)), oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SpO(2)), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) were compared between sternal (STE) and lateral (LAT) recumbency in free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis)(More)
Maternal obesity affects offspring weight, body composition, and organ function, increasing diabetes and metabolic syndrome risk. We determined effects of maternal obesity and a high-energy diet on fetal pancreatic development. Sixty days prior to breeding, ewes were assigned to control [100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or obesogenic(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs(More)
Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) is a resistant and ubiquitous virus of chickens causing disease in young chickens and immunosuppression in all birds. This paper reviews the current knowledge of CIAV with a focus on new findings indicating that immunosuppressive effects have not been fully appreciated, especially as they relate to the development of(More)
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a small circular single-stranded DNA virus with a single promoter-enhancer region containing four consensus cyclic AMP response element sequences (AGCTCA), which are similar to the estrogen response element (ERE) consensus half-sites (A)GGTCA. These sequences are arranged as direct repeats, an arrangement that can be recognized(More)
Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) is a ubiquitous and highly resistant virus of chickens that causes anemia and death in chicks less than 3 wk of age and immunosuppression in chickens older than 3 wk of age. The production of specific-pathogen-free eggs free of CIAV is essential for research and vaccine production. Currently, flocks are screened for(More)
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) causes significant disease in cattle. Control programs in North America incorporate vaccination with modified live viral (MLV) or killed (KV) vaccine. BoHV-1 strains are isolated from diseased animals or fetuses after vaccination. There are markers for differentiating MLV from field strains using whole-genome sequencing and(More)
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, causes severe to fatal disease in newborn ruminants, as well as abortions in pregnant animals; both preventable by vaccination. Availability of a challenge model is a pre-requisite for vaccine efficacy trials. Several modes of inoculation with RVFV ZH501 were tested on goats and sheep.(More)
Organic insect repellents are of interest to many agricultural producers and animal owners. Geraniol, a plant-derived alcohol, is naturally produced by a wide range of plants and is a US Environmental Protection Agency minimum risk pesticide. Previous studies have shown various concentrations of geraniol repel or kill mosquitoes; however, geraniol might(More)