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Trypanosoma cruzi is thought to undergo predominant clonal evolution, as determined by population genetics studies. However, this model does not exclude occasional recombination, which existence is strongly suggested by several recent studies. We sequenced a portion of the maxicircle cytochrome b (CYb) gene and of the nuclear rRNA promoter region from(More)
Cryptosporidium species cause acute gastroenteritis and diarrhoea worldwide. They are members of the Apicomplexa--protozoan pathogens that invade host cells by using a specialized apical complex and are usually transmitted by an invertebrate vector or intermediate host. In contrast to other Apicomplexans, Cryptosporidium is transmitted by ingestion of(More)
Chagas' disease, caused by the hemoflagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people in South and Central America. Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, the most devastating manifestation of this disease, occurs in approximately one-third of infected individuals. Events associated with the parasite's tropism for and invasion of cardiomyocytes(More)
Clostridium scindens American Type Culture Collection 35704 is capable of converting primary bile acids to toxic secondary bile acids, as well as converting glucocorticoids to androgens by side-chain cleavage. The molecular structure of the side-chain cleavage product of cortisol produced by C. scindens was determined to be(More)
Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to(More)
Characterizing microbial communities via next-generation sequencing is subject to a number of pitfalls involving sample processing. The observed community composition can be a severe distortion of the quantities of bacteria actually present in the microbiome, hampering analysis and threatening the validity of conclusions from metagenomic studies. We(More)
We probed DNA from all trypanosomatid genera by slot blot hybridization with an oligonucleotide (SL3') complementary to a sequence of the Phytomonas spliced-leader or mini-exon RNA. The 19-nucleotide probe target site was previously shown to be highly conserved among a limited number of Phytomonas isolates, but diverges in other kinetoplastid genera. Our(More)
The application of next-generation sequencing to the study of the vaginal microbiome is revealing the spectrum of microbial communities that inhabit the human vagina. High-resolution identification of bacterial taxa, minimally to the species level, is necessary to fully understand the association of the vaginal microbiome with bacterial vaginosis, sexually(More)
Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this(More)
We propose a taxonomic revision of the dixenous trypanosomatids currently classified as Endotrypanum and Leishmania, including parasites that do not fall within the subgenera L. (Leishmania) and L. (Viannia) related to human leishmaniasis or L. (Sauroleishmania) formed by leishmanias of lizards: L. colombiensis, L. equatorensis, L. herreri, L. hertigi, L.(More)