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Humans show large inter-individual differences in organising their behaviour within the 24-h day-this is most obvious in their preferred timing of sleep and wakefulness. Sleep and wake times show a near-Gaussian distribution in a given population, with extreme early types waking up when extreme late types fall asleep. This distribution is predominantly(More)
A quarter of the world's population is subjected to a 1 hr time change twice a year (daylight saving time, DST). This reflects a change in social clocks, not environmental ones (e.g., dawn). The impact of DST is poorly understood. Circadian clocks use daylight to synchronize (entrain) to the organism's environment. Entrainment is so exact that humans adjust(More)
The circadian clock can only reliably fulfil its function if it is stably entrained. Most clocks use the light-dark cycle as environmental signal (zeitgeber) for this active synchronisation. How we think about clock function and entrainment has been strongly influenced by the early concepts of the field's pioneers, and the astonishing finding that circadian(More)
Sleep is systematically modulated by chronotype in day-workers. Therefore, investigations into how shift-work affects sleep, health, and cognition may provide more reliable insights if they consider individual circadian time (chronotype). The Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) is a useful tool for determining chronotype. It assesses chronotype based on(More)
To date, studies investigating the consequences of shiftwork have predominantly focused on external (local) time. Here, we report the daily variation in cognitive performance in rotating shiftworkers under real-life conditions using the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and show that this function depends both on external and internal (biological) time. In(More)
This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep(More)
OBJECTIVES Circadian regulation of human physiology and behavior (eg, body temperature or sleep-timing), depends on the "zeitgeber" light that synchronizes them to the 24-hour day. This study investigated the effect of changing light temperature at the workplace from 4000 Kelvin (K) to 8000 K on sleep-wake and activity-rest behavior. METHODS An(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Evolutionary theorists argue that cultural evolution has harnessed various aspects of our evolved psychology to create a variety of different mechanisms for sustaining social norms, including those related to large-scale cooperation. One of these mechanisms, costly punishment, has emerged in experiments as an effective means to sustain(More)
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