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Mouse ES cells can differentiate into all three germ layers of the embryo but are generally excluded from the trophoblast lineage. Here we show that ES cells deficient in DNA methylation can differentiate efficiently into trophoblast derivatives. In a genome-wide screen we identified the transcription factor Elf5 as methylated and repressed in ES cells, and(More)
Through studies of transgenic and mutant mice, it is possible to describe molecular pathways that control the development of all major trophoblast cell subtypes and structures of the placenta. For example, the proliferation of trophoblast stem cells is dependent on FGF signalling and downstream transcription factors Cdx2, Eomes and Err2. Several bHLH(More)
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) results from mutations in at least two different loci, designated RP2 and RP3, located at Xp11.3 and Xp21.1, respectively. The RP3 gene was recently isolated by positional cloning, whereas the RP2 locus was mapped genetically to a 5-cM interval. We have screened this region for genomic rearrangements by the YAC(More)
Mammalian embryos have an intimate relationship with their mothers, particularly with the placental vasculature from which embryos obtain nutrients essential for growth. It is an interesting vascular bed because maternal vessel number and diameter change dramatically during gestation and, in rodents and primates, the terminal blood space becomes lined by(More)
DNA methylation patterns are reprogrammed in primordial germ cells and in preimplantation embryos by demethylation and subsequent de novo methylation. It has been suggested that epigenetic reprogramming may be necessary for the embryonic genome to return to a pluripotent state. We have carried out a genome-wide promoter analysis of DNA methylation in mouse(More)
Cells of the early mammalian embryo, including pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and primordial germ cells (PGCs), are epigenetically dynamic and heterogeneous. During early development, this heterogeneity of epigenetic states is associated with stochastic expression of lineage-determining transcription factors that establish an intimate crosstalk with(More)
The placenta is a highly specialized organ essential for embryonic growth and development. Here, we have applied cDNA subtraction between extraembryonic tissues of early- (day 7.5 of gestation) and late-stage embryos (day 17.5) to generate stage-specific cDNA pools that were used for screening of high-density mouse UniGene cDNA arrays containing 25,000(More)
Interspecific hybridization in the genus Mus results in male sterility and X-linked placental dysplasia. We have generated several congenic laboratory mouse lines (Mus musculus) in which different parts of the maternal X chromosome were derived from M. spretus. A strict positive correlation between placental weight and length of the M. spretus-derived part(More)
The mammalian fetus represents a semiallograft within the maternal uterus yet is not rejected. This situation is particularly pronounced in species with a hemochorial type of placentation, such as humans and rodents, where maternal tissues and blood are in direct contact with fetal trophoblast and thus potentially with paternal antigens. The main(More)
Uterine NK (uNK) cells are a prominent feature of the uterine mucosa and regulate placentation. NK cell activity is regulated by a balance of activating and inhibitory receptors, however the receptor repertoire of mouse uNK cells is unknown. We describe herein two distinct subsets of CD3(-)CD122(+) NK cells in the mouse uterus (comprising decidua and(More)