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BACKGROUND In October 2009 it was reported that 68 of 101 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in the US were infected with a novel gamma retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a virus previously linked to prostate cancer. This finding, if confirmed, would have a profound effect on the understanding and treatment of an(More)
We used a PCR-based approach to study the prevalence of genetic sequences related to a gammaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus, XMRV, in human prostate cancer. This virus has been identified in the US in prostate cancer patients and in those with chronic fatigue syndrome. However, with the exception of two patients in Germany, XMRV(More)
Three human cell lines used in human immunodeficiency virus research were found to be contaminated with previously undetected retroviruses. On the bases of partial nucleotide sequence, capsid protein antigenicity, vector mobilization, and receptor usage studies, these contaminants were shown to be replication competent and to belong to the Gammaretrovirus(More)
OBJECTIVE An epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) is emerging in Europe, Australia and the USA. The aim of this study was to characterise the natural history of primary HCV in this setting and to assess host and viral factors which predict spontaneous clearance. METHODS This prospective(More)
Foamy viruses (FVs) are retroid viruses which use a replication strategy unlike those of other retroviruses and hepadnaviruses (S. F. Yu, D. N. Baldwin, S. R. Gwynn, S. Yendapilli, and M. L. Linial, Science 271:1579-1582, 1996). One of the striking differences between FVs and retroviruses is the presence of large amounts of linear genome-length DNA in(More)
OBJECTIVE An epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men is occurring in urban centers in Western Europe and the United States. Early diagnosis and treatment of HCV results in improved sustained virological response rates. This study compared the sensitivity of reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) versus(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses T cell responses by its action in catabolising tryptophan. It is important in maintenance of immune privilege in the placenta. We investigated the activity of IDO in the cornea, following corneal transplantation and the effect of IDO over-expression in donor corneal endothelium on the survival of corneal(More)
Establishment of the stable provirus is an essential step in retroviral replication, orchestrated by integrase (IN), a virus-derived enzyme. Until now, available structural information was limited to the INs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), avian sarcoma virus (ASV) and their close orthologs from the Lentivirus and Alpharetrovirus genera.(More)
An essential step in the release of an extracellular enveloped virus particle is a budding event that ultimately separates virion and host cell membranes. For many enveloped viruses, membrane fission requires the recruitment of the class E vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) machinery by short, virally encoded peptide sequences termed "late-budding" or "L"(More)
OBJECTIVE Few data exist on the virological response to antiretroviral therapy of individuals infected with African HIV-1 subtypes. Our objective was to compare the response, in our clinic, of African HIV-1-infected patients with their British and European contemporaries treated with the same regimes. DESIGN The St Mary's Hospital HIV database was used to(More)