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X-ray crystal structures of three forms of human mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) were solved by molecular-replacement methods, using Escherichia coli BCAT as the search model. The enzyme is a homodimer and the polypeptide chain of each monomer has two domains. The small domain is composed of residues 1--175 and the large domain is(More)
The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids required not only for growth and development, but also as nutrient signals and as nitrogen donors to neurotransmitter synthesis and glutamate/glutamine cycling. Transamination and oxidative decarboxylation of the BCAAs are catalysed by the branched-chain aminotransferase proteins (BCATm,(More)
The catabolic pathways of branched-chain amino acids have two common steps. The first step is deamination catalyzed by the vitamin B(6)-dependent branched-chain aminotransferase isozymes (BCATs) to produce branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKAs). The second step is oxidative decarboxylation of the BCKAs mediated by the branched-chain alpha-keto acid(More)
The branched chain aminotransferase enzymes (BCAT) serve as nitrogen donors for the production of 30% of de novo glutamate synthesis in rat brain. Despite the importance of this major metabolite and excitatory neurotransmitter, the distribution of BCAT proteins in the human brain (hBCAT) remains unreported. We have studied this and report, for the first(More)
In this study aminotransferase inhibitors were used to determine the relative importance of different aminotransferases in providing nitrogen for de novo glutamate synthesis in the retina. Aminooxyacetate, which inhibits all aminotransferases, blocked de novo glutamate synthesis from H(14)CO(3)(-) by more than 60%. Inhibition of neuronal cytosolic branched(More)
BACKGROUND The human branched chain aminotransferases (hBCATm, mitochondrial and hBCATc, cytosolic) are major contributors to brain glutamate production. This excitatory neurotransmitter is thought to contribute to neurotoxicity in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the expression of hBCAT in this disease has not previously(More)
Crystal structures of the fold type IV pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent human mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (hBCATm) reaction intermediates have provided a structural explanation for the kinetically determined substrate specificity of hBCATm. The isoleucine side chain in the ketimine intermediate occupies a hydrophobic binding pocket that(More)
The mitochondrial and cytosolic branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT(m) and BCAT(c)) are homodimers in the fold type IV class of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-containing enzymes that also contains D-amino acid aminotransferase and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (a beta-lyase). Recombinant human BCAT(m) and BCAT(c) were shown to have beta-lyase activity toward(More)
The three-dimensional structures of the isoleucine ketimine and the pyridoxamine phosphate forms of human mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (hBCATm) have been determined crystallographically at 1.9 A resolution. The hBCATm-catalyzed transamination can be described in molecular terms together with the earlier solved pyridoxal phosphate forms of(More)