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Cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) by interacting with cyclophilin D (CypD) and ameliorates neuronal cell death in the central nervous system against ischemic injury. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CypD/MPTP opening-mediated cell death in ischemic retinal injury induced by acute(More)
Oxidative stress contributes to dysfunction of glial cells in the optic nerve head (ONH). However, the biological basis of the precise functional role of mitochondria in this dysfunction is not fully understood. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant, acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species(More)
Although selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SPS1/SelD) is an essential gene in Drosophila, its function has not been determined. To elucidate its intracellular role, we targeted the removal of SPS1/SelD mRNA in Drosophila SL2 cells using RNA interference technology that led to the formation of vacuole-like globular structures. Surprisingly, these structures were(More)
PURPOSE To test whether a diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) ameliorates glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress-mediated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration by preventing mitochondrial alterations in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. METHODS Preglaucomatous DBA/2J and age-matched control DBA/2J-Gpnmb(+) mice were fed with CoQ10(More)
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is characterized by slow and progressive degeneration of the optic nerve head axons and retinal ganglion cell (RGC), leading to loss of visual function. Although oxidative stress and/or alteration of mitochondrial (mt) dynamics induced by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are associated with this(More)
Selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SPS1) is an essential cellular gene in higher eukaryotes. Five alternative splice variants of human SPS1 (major type, DeltaE2, DeltaE8, +E9, +E9a) were identified wherein +E9 and +E9a make the same protein. The major type was localized in both the nuclear and plasma membranes, and the others in the cytoplasm. All variants form(More)
Selenophosphate synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of selenophosphate which is a selenium donor for Sec biosynthesis. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are two types of selenophosphate synthetases designated dSPS1 and dSPS2, where dSPS2 is a selenoprotein. The mechanism of gene expression of dSPS2 as well as other selenoproteins in Drosophila has not been(More)
The negatively regulating zinc finger protein (NZFP) is an essential transcription repressor required for early development during gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. In this study, we found that NZFP interacts with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation E2 enzyme, Ubc9, and contains three putative SUMO conjugation sites. Studies with NZFP mutants(More)
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species for protecting neuronal cells against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. We tested whether a diet supplemented with CoQ10 ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial alteration, as well as promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in ischemic retina induced by intraocular(More)
G-rich is a Drosophila melanogaster selenoprotein, which is a homologue of human and mouse SelK. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged G-rich showed that G-rich was localized in the Golgi apparatus. The fusion protein was co-localized with the Golgi marker proteins but not with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein in Drosophila SL2(More)