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PURPOSE Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that shows elevated expression in a number of cancers. We attempted to determine whether serum APE1/Ref-1 is elevated in patients with bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Serum APE1/Ref-1 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in(More)