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Systems for protein degradation are essential for tight control of the inflammatory immune response. Autophagy, a bulk degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents into autolysosomes, controls degradation of long-lived proteins, insoluble protein aggregates and invading microbes, and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of(More)
Lymphocyte trafficking to lymph nodes (LNs) is initiated by the interaction between lymphocyte L-selectin and certain sialomucins, collectively termed peripheral node addressin (PNAd), carrying specific carbohydrates expressed by LN high endothelial venules (HEVs). Here, we identified a novel HEV-associated sialomucin, nepmucin (mucin not expressed in(More)
The intestinal immune system is constantly challenged by commensal bacteria; therefore, it must maintain quiescence via several regulatory mechanisms. Although intestinal macrophages (Ms) have been implicated in repression of excessive inflammation, it remains unclear how their functions are regulated during inflammation. In this study, we report that(More)
BACKGROUND The recruitment of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T (Treg) cells is one of the most important mechanisms by which parasites down-regulate the immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We compared the effects of Treg cells from Trichinella spiralis-infected mice and uninfected mice on experimental allergic airway inflammation in order to understand the(More)
Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small(More)
PAF complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional complex that associates with RNA polymerase II in the coding region of actively transcribing genes. Although its transcriptional activity is closely related to diverse cellular processes, such as cell-cycle progression or development in mammals, its role in immune responses has not been addressed(More)