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CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems protect bacteria and archaea against foreign genetic elements. In Escherichia coli, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) is an RNA-guided surveillance complex that binds foreign DNA and recruits Cas3, a trans-acting nuclease helicase for target degradation. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to(More)
Elastase, V8 protease, subtilisin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin all cleaved the 1462-residue polypeptide of rat carbamyl phosphate synthetase I in segment C 160-180 residues from the COOH-end. Its activator N-acetylglutamate (AcGlu) increased the rate of cleavage approximately ninefold, presumably by binding preferentially to the conformation in which C is(More)
To assemble into functional structures, biopolymers search for global minima through their folding potential energy surfaces to find the native conformation. However, this process can be hindered by the presence of kinetic traps. Here, we present a new single-molecule technique, termed laser-assisted single-molecule refolding (LASR), to characterize kinetic(More)
The p120 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) is a negative regulator of Ras, which has a central role in signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation. p120 GAP accelerates the conversion of activated Ras-GTP to its inactive form, Ras-GDP, thereby inhibiting mitogenic signaling. To examine potential contributions of p120 N-terminal sequences to(More)
A preparation of rat carbamylphosphate synthetase I, isolated in the presence of antipain and stable without glycerol, has been used to investigate the effect of the allosteric activator, N-acetyl-L-glutamate (AcGlu), on the sulfhydryl chemistry of the enzyme. The enzyme X AcGlu complex was rapidly inactivated by several sulfhydryl group reagents and the(More)