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Response to a challenging environment proceeds through adaptation, the result of stochastic processes (chance) and of the influence of history (constraint) [1]. Adaptations, such as pesticide resistance, provide an opportunity to study historical constraints. Insecticides, widely used since the mid 1950s, have elicited numerous cases of resistance. Specific(More)
BACKGROUND The role of inter-specific hybridisation is of particular importance in mosquito disease vectors for predicting the evolution of insecticide resistance. Two molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s., currently recognized as S and M taxa, are considered to be incipient sibling species. Hybrid scarcity in the field was suggested that(More)
Resistance to organophosphate (OP) insecticide in the mosquito Culex pipiens has been studied for ca. 30 years. This example of micro-evolution has been thoroughly investigated as an opportunity to assess precisely both the new adapted phenotypes and the associated genetic changes. A notable feature is that OP resistance is achieved with few genes, and(More)
One view of adaptation is that it proceeds by the slow and steady accumulation of beneficial mutations with small effects. It is difficult to test this model, since in most cases the genetic basis of adaptation can only be studied a posteriori with traits that have evolved for a long period of time through an unknown sequence of steps. In this paper, we(More)
Gene duplication is thought to be the main potential source of material for the evolution of new gene functions. Several models have been proposed for the evolution of new functions through duplication, most based on ancient events (Myr). We provide molecular evidence for the occurrence of several (at least 3) independent duplications of the ace-1 locus in(More)
Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the target of two major insecticide families, organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates. AChE insensitivity is a frequent resistance mechanism in insects and responsible mutations in the ace gene were identified in two Diptera, Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. However, for other insects, the ace gene cloned by homology(More)
BACKGROUND The evolutionary dynamics of xenobiotic resistance depends on how resistance mutations influence the fitness of their bearers, both in the presence and absence of xenobiotic selection pressure. In cases of multiple resistance, these dynamics will also depend on how individual resistance mutations interact with one another, and on the xenobiotics(More)
BACKGROUND Insecticide resistance is a rapid and recent evolutionary phenomenon with serious economic and public health implications. In the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s., main vector of malaria, resistance to organophosphates and carbamates is mainly due to a single amino-acid substitution in acetylcholinesterase 1 (AChE1). This mutation entails a large(More)