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Response to a challenging environment proceeds through adaptation, the result of stochastic processes (chance) and of the influence of history (constraint) [1]. Adaptations, such as pesticide resistance, provide an opportunity to study historical constraints. Insecticides, widely used since the mid 1950s, have elicited numerous cases of resistance. Specific(More)
BACKGROUND The role of inter-specific hybridisation is of particular importance in mosquito disease vectors for predicting the evolution of insecticide resistance. Two molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s., currently recognized as S and M taxa, are considered to be incipient sibling species. Hybrid scarcity in the field was suggested that(More)
In the mosquito Culex pipiens, insecticide resistance genes alter many life-history traits and incur a fitness cost. Resistance to organophosphate insecticides involves two loci, with each locus coding for a different mechanism of resistance (degradation vs. insensitivity to insecticides). The density of intracellular Wolbachia bacteria has been found to be(More)
Resistance to organophosphate (OP) insecticide in the mosquito Culex pipiens has been studied for ca. 30 years. This example of micro-evolution has been thoroughly investigated as an opportunity to assess precisely both the new adapted phenotypes and the associated genetic changes. A notable feature is that OP resistance is achieved with few genes, and(More)
One view of adaptation is that it proceeds by the slow and steady accumulation of beneficial mutations with small effects. It is difficult to test this model, since in most cases the genetic basis of adaptation can only be studied a posteriori with traits that have evolved for a long period of time through an unknown sequence of steps. In this paper, we(More)
Gene duplication is thought to be the main potential source of material for the evolution of new gene functions. Several models have been proposed for the evolution of new functions through duplication, most based on ancient events (Myr). We provide molecular evidence for the occurrence of several (at least 3) independent duplications of the ace-1 locus in(More)
Wolbachia symbionts are responsible for various alterations in host reproduction. The effects of the host genome on endosymbiont levels have often been suggested, but rarely described. Here, we show that Wolbachia density is strongly modified by the presence of insecticide-resistant genes in the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens. The Wolbachia density(More)
Maternally inherited Wolbachia often manipulate the reproduction of arthropods to promote their transmission. In most species, Wolbachia exert a form of conditional sterility termed cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), characterized by the death of embryos produced by the mating between individuals with incompatible Wolbachia infections. From a theoretical(More)
Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors(More)