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BACKGROUND Over the past two decades, geographical accessibility of urban resources for population living in residential areas has received an increased focus in urban health studies. Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a surge of interest in studying small-area characteristics as determinants of population and individual health. Accumulating evidence indicates the existence of variations in the health status of populations living in areas that differ in affluence and shows that selected small-area characteristics are(More)
To map out area effects on health research, this study had the following aims: (1) to inventory multilevel investigations of area effects on self rated health, cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, and mortality among adults; (2) to describe and critically discuss methodological approaches employed and results observed; and (3) to formulate selected(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this paper is to establish the reliability and validity of a neighborhood-level measure of active living potential by applying principles of ecometrics. METHODS Following a 3-day training session, observers (n =8) were provided with a map of a predetermined walking route constructed through the joining of ten randomly selected(More)
This paper examines the association between neighborhood active living potential and walking among middle-aged and older adults. A sample of 2,614 (61.1% women) persons aged 45 years or older and living in one of 112 census tracts in Montreal, Canada, were recruited between February and May of 2005 to participate in a 20-minute telephone survey. Data were(More)
The geography of small areas has important implications for studying the contextual determinants of health because of potential errors when measuring ecologic exposures and estimating their effects on health. In this paper, we present an approach for designing homogeneous zones optimising the spatial distribution of an area-level exposure, active living(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the relation of household crowding to food insecurity among Inuit families with school-aged children in Arctic Quebec. METHODS We analyzed data collected between October 2005 and February 2010 from 292 primary caregiver-child dyads from 14 Inuit communities. We collected information about household conditions, food security, and(More)
Despite growing literature showing associations of availability and accessibility of facilities to greater levels of physical activity, considerably less is known about the actual extent of use of these facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual (sex, age, education and extent of involvement in vigorous physical activity) and local(More)
Studies of inequalities in health between rural and urban settings have produced mixed and sometimes conflicting results, depending on the national setting of the study, the level of geographic detail used to define rural areas and the health indicators studied. By focusing on morbidity data from a national sample of individuals, this study aims to examine(More)