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De novo somatic mutations in focal areas are well documented in diseases such as neoplasia but are rarely reported in malformation of the developing brain. Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is characterized by overgrowth of either one of the two cerebral hemispheres. The molecular etiology of HME remains a mystery. The intractable epilepsy that is associated with(More)
There is considerable evidence that alterations in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSSNs) giving rise to the direct (D1 receptor-expressing) and indirect (D2 receptor-expressing) pathways differentially contribute to the phenotype of Huntington's disease (HD). To determine how each subpopulation of MSSN is functionally affected, we examined spontaneous(More)
In paediatric epilepsy surgery patients with hemimegalencephaly (HME; n = 23), this study compared clinical, neuroimaging and pathologic features to discern potential mechanisms for suboptimal post-hemispherectomy developmental outcomes and structural pathogenesis. MRI measured affected and non-affected cerebral hemisphere volumes for HME and non-HME cases,(More)
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and cortical dysplasia Type IIB (CDIIB) share histopathologic features that suggest similar epileptogenic mechanisms. This study compared the morphological and electrophysiological properties of cortical cells in tissue from pediatric TSC (n=20) and CDIIB (n=20) patients using whole-cell patch clamp recordings and biocytin(More)
Brain and primary neuron fractions enriched in synaptic terminals are important tools for neuroscientists in biochemical, neuroanatomical and physiological studies. We describe an annotated updated micro-method for preparing synaptoneurosomes (SNs) enriched in presynaptic and postsynaptic elements. An easy to follow, step-by-step, protocol is provided for(More)
In Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, striatal medium-sized spiny neurons undergo degenerative changes. In contrast, large cholinergic interneurons (LCIs) are relatively spared. However, their ability to release acetylcholine (ACh) is impaired. The present experiments examined morphological and electrophysiological(More)
Abnormalities in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system could be responsible for seizures in cortical dysplasia (CD). We examined responses of pyramidal neurons to exogenous application of GABA, as well as alterations of GABAergic interneuron number and size in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients with non-CD, type I CD, and type II CD pathologies.(More)
Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare complex inflammatory disease, primarily seen in young children, that is characterized by severe partial seizures and brain atrophy. Surgery is currently the only effective treatment option. To identify genes specifically associated with the immunopathology in RE, RNA transcripts of genes involved in inflammation and(More)
A new method for enhancing MRI contrast between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in epilepsy surgery patients with symptomatic lesions is presented. This method uses the radiation damping feedback interaction in high-field MRI to amplify contrast due to small differences in resonance frequency in GM and WM corresponding to variations in tissue(More)
AIMS Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare but devastating condition, mainly in children, characterized by sustained brain inflammation, atrophy of one cerebral hemisphere, epilepsy, and progressive cognitive deterioration. The etiology of RE-induced seizures associated with the inflammatory process remains unknown. METHODS Cortical tissue samples from(More)