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Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare, rapidly fatal, autosomal recessive immune disorder characterized by uncontrolled activation of T cells and macrophages and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines. Linkage analyses indicate that FHL is genetically heterogeneous and linked to 9q21.3-22, 10q21-22, or another as yet undefined locus.(More)
This survey of the clinical and epidemiological features of human cowpox, a rare but relatively severe zoonotic infection, is based on 54 cases, many unpublished, which we have studied since 1969. Patients present with painful, haemorrhagic pustules or black eschars, usually on the hand or face, accompanied by oedema, erythema, lymphadenopathy, and systemic(More)
Transmission is the driving force in the dynamics of any infectious disease. A crucial element in understanding disease dynamics, therefore, is the 'transmission term' describing the rate at which susceptible hosts are 'converted' into infected hosts by their contact with infectious material. Recently, the conventional form of this term has been(More)
Sera from cats and dogs in the UK were tested by ELISA for antibodies to Bartonella henselae. Seropositivity was confirmed in 28 of 69 pet cats (40.6 per cent), 33 of 79 feral cats (41.8 per cent) and three of 100 pet dogs. Reactivity to specific B. henselae antigens was confirmed by Western blotting and demonstrated that consistent antigenic bands were(More)
Many zoonotic disease agents are transmitted between hosts by arthropod vectors, including fleas, but few empirical studies of host-vector-microparasite dynamics have investigated the relative importance of hosts and vectors. This study investigates the dynamics of 4 closely related Bartonella species and their flea vectors in cyclic populations of field(More)
Blood samples were repeatedly collected from 12 sympatric woodland rodents over a 12-month period and DNA extracts from each were incorporated into a bartonella-specific PCR targeting a fragment of the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR). The composition of each amplicon was analysed using restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and base sequence(More)
Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) 1 is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed on a subset (50%) of C57BL/6 natural killer (NK) cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that the LGL-1 protein exists as a disulfide-linked 40-kD homodimer. Functional studies of LGL-1+ cells indicate that selected H-2d target cells are not lysed efficiently by these(More)
We address the mechanism of hybrid resistance (HR) in vitro using NK effector cells and target lymphoblasts from H-2b, H-2d, and H-2b/d mice. The 5E6 (Ly49C)+ subset of F1 NK cells lyse BALB/c (H-2d) but not B6 (H-2b) targets unless either anti-5E6 or anti-H-2Kb MAbs are present. H-2Dd transgenic B6 (D8) targets are not susceptible to F1 Ly49A+ effectors.(More)
2B4 is a member of the CD2 subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily molecules expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and other leukocytes. It is the high affinity ligand for CD48. Engagement of 2B4 on NK-cell surfaces with specific antibodies or CD48 can trigger cell-mediated cytotoxicity, interferon-gamma secretion, phosphoinositol turnover and NK-cell(More)
The presence of haemoparasites belonging to the taxa Anaplasma, Bartonella and Trypanosoma was determined among 76 common shrews (Sorex araneus) from Northwest England. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was recovered from the blood of 1 shrew (1.3%), with the amplified 16S rRNA sequence identical to one previously reported from a bank vole (Clethrionomys(More)