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Among non-smokers, the factors resulting in lung carcinogenesis are poorly understood. We conducted a hospital-based case-control analysis of 294 Chinese women, of whom 217 were non-smokers, to evaluate the role of polymorphic N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) as a susceptibility factor for the disease. The proportion of slow acetylator genotypes among non-smoking(More)
Forkhead box (FOX) proteins have been shown to play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, longevity, and transformation. The functional importance of this gene family in normal human skin physiology and disease processes is not well understood. Activation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)(More)
Melatonin (5-methoxy N-acetyltryptamine) is a hormone synthesized and released from the pineal gland at night, which acts on specific high affinity G-protein coupled receptors to regulate various aspects of physiology and behaviour, including circadian and seasonal responses, and some retinal, cardiovascular and immunological functions. In amphibians, such(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer associated with smoking and drinking remains a serious health problem worldwide. The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective early biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
BACKGROUND Desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), a desmosomal adhesion protein, is expressed in basal and immediate suprabasal layers of skin and across the entire stratified squamous epithelium of oral mucosa. However, increasing evidence suggests that the role of Dsg3 may involve more than just cell-cell adhesion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To determine possible(More)
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common human cancer with increasing incidence reported worldwide. Despite the aberrant signaling role of the Hedgehog pathway, little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying basal cell carcinomas. Towards a better understanding of global genetic events, we have employed the Affymetrix Mapping 10K single nucleotide(More)
The oncogene FOXM1 has been implicated in all major types of human cancer. We recently showed that aberrant FOXM1 expression causes stem cell compartment expansion resulting in the initiation of hyperplasia. We have previously shown that FOXM1 regulates HELLS, a SNF2/helicase involved in DNA methylation, implicating FOXM1 in epigenetic regulation. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND The human cell cycle transcription factor FOXM1 is known to play a key role in regulating timely mitotic progression and accurate chromosomal segregation during cell division. Deregulation of FOXM1 has been linked to a majority of human cancers. We previously showed that FOXM1 was upregulated in basal cell carcinoma and recently reported that(More)
Stem cells are permanent residents of tissues and thought to be targets of cancer initiation. The frequent, and often early, upregulation of the FOXM1 transcription factor in the majority of human cancers suggests that it may participate in the initiation of human tumorigenesis. However, this hypothesis has not been tested. Herein, we show that targeting(More)
BACKGROUND Keratin 15 (K15) is a type I keratin that is used as a marker of stem cells. Its expression is restricted to the basal layer of stratified epithelia, and the bulge in hair follicles. However, in certain clinical situations including oral lichen planus, K15 is induced in suprabasal layers, which is inconsistent with the role of a stem cell marker.(More)