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BACKGROUND Recent advances in DNA sequencing and computation offer the opportunity for reliable estimates of divergence times between organisms based on molecular data. Bayesian estimations of divergence times that do not assume the molecular clock use time constraints at multiple nodes, usually based on the fossil records, as major boundary conditions.(More)
The basal actinopterygians comprise four major lineages (polypteriforms, acipenseriforms, lepisosteids, and Amia) and have been collectively called "ancient fish." We investigated the phylogeny of this group of fishes in relation to teleosts using mitochondrial genomic (mitogenomic) data, and compared this to the various alternative phylogenetic hypotheses(More)
We explored the phylogenetic utility and limits of the individual and concatenated mitochondrial genes for reconstructing the higher-level relationships of teleosts, using the complete (or nearly complete) mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight teleosts (including three newly determined sequences), whose relative phylogenetic positions were noncontroversial.(More)
BACKGROUND In teleost fishes that lack a vomeronasal organ, both main odorant receptors (ORs) and vomeronasal receptors family 2 (V2Rs) are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, and used for perception of water-soluble chemicals. In zebrafish, it is known that both ORs and V2Rs formed multigene families of about a hundred copies. Whereas the contribution(More)
A recent study demonstrated that mitochondrial genomic (mitogenomic) data comprising nucleotide sequences from the concatenated protein-coding (no 3rd codon positions) plus transfer RNA (stem regions only) genes reproduced the expected phylogeny of teleosts with high statistical support. We reexamined the interrelationships of the five major, basal(More)
A skewed assemblage of two epi-, meso- and bathypelagic fish families makes up the order Myctophiformes – the blackchins Neoscopelidae and the lanternfishes Myctophidae. The six rare neoscopelids show few morphological specializations whereas the divergent myctophids have evolved into about 250 species, of which many show massive abundances and wide(More)
Turtles have highly specialized morphological characteristics, and their phylogenetic position has been under intensive debate. Previous molecular studies have not established a consistent and statistically well supported conclusion on this issue. In order to address this, complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were determined for the green turtle and the(More)
Higher-level relationships of the basal Euteleostei (=Protacanthopterygii) are so complex and controversial that at least nine different morphology-based phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed during the last 30 years. Relationships of the Protacanthopterygii were investigated using mitochondrial genomic (mitogenomic) data from 34 purposefully chosen(More)
BACKGROUND The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has a characteristic reproductive mode; mature males build nests using a secreted glue-like protein called spiggin. Although recent studies reported multiple occurrences of genes that encode this glue-like protein spiggin in threespine and ninespine sticklebacks, it is still unclear how many(More)
Mitofish is a database of fish mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) that includes powerful and precise de novo annotations for mitogenome sequences. Fish occupy an important position in the evolution of vertebrates and the ecology of the hydrosphere, and mitogenomic sequence data have served as a rich source of information for resolving fish phylogenies and(More)