Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan

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BACKGROUND The rapidly expanding availability of de novo sequencing technologies can greatly facilitate efforts to monitor the relatively high mutation rates of influenza A viruses and the detection of quasispecies. Both the mutation rates and the lineages of influenza A viruses are likely to play an important role in the natural history of these viruses(More)
Water-borne transmission has been suggested as an important transmission mechanism for Influenza A (IA) viruses in wild duck populations; however, relatively few studies have attempted to detect IA viruses from aquatic habitats. Water-isolated viruses have rarely been genetically characterized and evaluation for persistence in water and infectivity in(More)
Wild ducks of the genus Anas represent the natural hosts for a large genetic diversity of influenza A viruses. In these hosts, co-infections with different virus genotypes are frequent and result in high rates of genetic reassortment. Recent genomic data have provided information regarding the pattern and frequency of these reassortant viruses in duck(More)
Rabies is endemic and an important zoonosis in India. There are very few reports available on molecular epidemiology of rabies virus of Indian origin. In this study to know the dynamics of rabies virus, a total of 41 rabies positive brain samples from dogs, cats, domestic animals, wildlife, and humans from 11 states were subjected to RT-PCR amplification of(More)
To the Editor: In 1998, a new lineage of triple reassortant infl uenza A (H3N2) virus (TR-H3N2) with genes from humans (hemmaglutinin [HA], neuraminidase [NA], and polymerase basic 1 [PB1]), swine (matrix [M], nonstructural [NS], and nucleoprotein [NP]), and birds (polymerase acidic [PA] and PB2) emerged in the U.S. swine population. Subsequently, similar(More)
Pasteurella multocida serogroup B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffalo especially in tropical regions of Asian and African countries, is known to possess several outer membrane proteins (OMPs) as immunogenic antigens. In the present study, omp87 gene encoding for 87 kDa OMP (Omp87) protein of P. multocida serogroup B:2(More)
A single-step reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting NS1 - a highly conserved gene among BTV serotypes was optimized and validated with seven serotypes: BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-9, BTV-10, BTV-16, BTV-21 and BTV-23. The relative sensitivity of the assay was 0.3 TCID50 and no cross reactivity could be observed with(More)
As the scientific community scrambles to define the ancestry and lineages of the eight segments of new pandemic H1N1 strain, we looked for unique genetic events in this virus's genome to explain the newly found enhanced virulence and transmissibility among humans. Genome annotations of this virus identified a stop mutation replacing serine at codon 12(More)
Abbreviations: Al(OH)3, aluminium hydroxide; BEI, binary ethylenimine; BTV, bluetongue virus; CMI, cellmediated immune response; CPE, cytopathic effect; CRI, clinical reaction index; d.p.i., days post inoculation; DTH, delayed-type hypersensitivity; EHDV, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus of deer; FIA, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant; PBS,(More)
Outer membrane lipoproteins are widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria which are involved in diverse mechanisms of physiology/pathogenesis. Various pathogenic bacterial strains belonging to the family-Pasteurellaceae have several surface exposed virulence factors including VacJ/VacJ-like lipoproteins. In the present study, vacJ gene encoding for VacJ(More)