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Rabies is endemic and an important zoonosis in India. There are very few reports available on molecular epidemiology of rabies virus of Indian origin. In this study to know the dynamics of rabies virus, a total of 41 rabies positive brain samples from dogs, cats, domestic animals, wildlife, and humans from 11 states were subjected to RT-PCR amplification of(More)
BACKGROUND The rapidly expanding availability of de novo sequencing technologies can greatly facilitate efforts to monitor the relatively high mutation rates of influenza A viruses and the detection of quasispecies. Both the mutation rates and the lineages of influenza A viruses are likely to play an important role in the natural history of these viruses(More)
Water-borne transmission has been suggested as an important transmission mechanism for Influenza A (IA) viruses in wild duck populations; however, relatively few studies have attempted to detect IA viruses from aquatic habitats. Water-isolated viruses have rarely been genetically characterized and evaluation for persistence in water and infectivity in(More)
Pasteurella multocida serogroup B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffalo especially in tropical regions of Asian and African countries, is known to possess several outer membrane proteins (OMPs) as immunogenic antigens. In the present study, omp87 gene encoding for 87 kDa OMP (Omp87) protein of P. multocida serogroup B:2(More)
A single-step reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting NS1 - a highly conserved gene among BTV serotypes was optimized and validated with seven serotypes: BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-9, BTV-10, BTV-16, BTV-21 and BTV-23. The relative sensitivity of the assay was 0.3 TCID50 and no cross reactivity could be observed with(More)
As the scientific community scrambles to define the ancestry and lineages of the eight segments of new pandemic H1N1 strain, we looked for unique genetic events in this virus's genome to explain the newly found enhanced virulence and transmissibility among humans. Genome annotations of this virus identified a stop mutation replacing serine at codon 12(More)
Wild ducks of the genus Anas represent the natural hosts for a large genetic diversity of influenza A viruses. In these hosts, co-infections with different virus genotypes are frequent and result in high rates of genetic reassortment. Recent genomic data have provided information regarding the pattern and frequency of these reassortant viruses in duck(More)
To the Editor: In 1998, a new lineage of triple reassortant infl uenza A (H3N2) virus (TR-H3N2) with genes from humans (hemmaglutinin [HA], neuraminidase [NA], and poly-merase basic 1 [PB1]), swine (matrix [M], nonstructural [NS], and nucleo-protein [NP]), and birds (polymerase acidic [PA] and PB2) emerged in the U.S. swine population. Subsequently, similar(More)
Two commonly used methods for calculating 50% endpoint using serial dilutions are Spearman-Karber method and Reed and Muench method. To understand/apply the above formulas, moderate statistical/mathematical skills are necessary. In this paper, a simple formula/method for calculating 50% endpoints has been proposed. The formula yields essentially similar(More)
Outer membrane lipoproteins are widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria which are involved in diverse mechanisms of physiology/pathogenesis. Various pathogenic bacterial strains belonging to the family-Pasteurellaceae have several surface exposed virulence factors including VacJ/VacJ-like lipoproteins. In the present study, vacJ gene encoding for VacJ(More)