Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan

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BACKGROUND The rapidly expanding availability of de novo sequencing technologies can greatly facilitate efforts to monitor the relatively high mutation rates of influenza A viruses and the detection of quasispecies. Both the mutation rates and the lineages of influenza A viruses are likely to play an important role in the natural history of these viruses(More)
Water-borne transmission has been suggested as an important transmission mechanism for Influenza A (IA) viruses in wild duck populations; however, relatively few studies have attempted to detect IA viruses from aquatic habitats. Water-isolated viruses have rarely been genetically characterized and evaluation for persistence in water and infectivity in(More)
Wild ducks of the genus Anas represent the natural hosts for a large genetic diversity of influenza A viruses. In these hosts, co-infections with different virus genotypes are frequent and result in high rates of genetic reassortment. Recent genomic data have provided information regarding the pattern and frequency of these reassortant viruses in duck(More)
Rabies is endemic and an important zoonosis in India. There are very few reports available on molecular epidemiology of rabies virus of Indian origin. In this study to know the dynamics of rabies virus, a total of 41 rabies positive brain samples from dogs, cats, domestic animals, wildlife, and humans from 11 states were subjected to RT-PCR amplification of(More)
To the Editor: In 1998, a new lineage of triple reassortant infl uenza A (H3N2) virus (TR-H3N2) with genes from humans (hemmaglutinin [HA], neuraminidase [NA], and poly-merase basic 1 [PB1]), swine (matrix [M], nonstructural [NS], and nucleo-protein [NP]), and birds (polymerase acidic [PA] and PB2) emerged in the U.S. swine population. Subsequently, similar(More)
Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, known to affect a wide range of domestic as well as wild animal and avian species throughout the world by causing either systemic or localized infections termed as ‘pasteurellosis’. P. multocida isolates are known to possess type IV fimbriae (pili) as one of the major virulence factors based on(More)
The fusion gene (ORF 117) sequences of twelve (n = 12) capripox virus isolates namely sheeppox (SPPV) and goatpox (GTPV) viruses from India were demonstrated for their genetic and phylogenetic relationship among them. All the isolates were confirmed for their identity by routine PCR before targeting ORF 117 gene for sequence analysis. The designed primers(More)
Avian influenza is a highly infectious and dynamically evolving disease of birds causing high morbidity and mortality. It is caused by avian influenza virus (AIV) that belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Two types of AIV have been described based on their pathogenicity viz. highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that causes severe disease with high(More)
Recent developments in molecular biology shed light on cross-species transmission of SPPV and GTPV. The present study was planned to characterize the capripoxviruses which were circulating in the field condition among sheep and goats using RPO30 gene-based viral lineage (SPPV/GTPV) differentiating PCR and sequencing of RPO30 and GPCR genes from clinical(More)
Sheeppox and goatpox are economically important diseases of small ruminants caused by sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), respectively. Although SPPV and GTPV have host preference, some strains may infect both sheep and goats. As capripox viruses (SPPV, GTPV and LSDV) are antigenically related but genetically distinct, their differentiation(More)