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We demonstrate a methodology that utilizes the specificity of enzyme-substrate biomolecular interactions to trigger miniaturized tools under biocompatible conditions. Miniaturized grippers were constructed using multilayer hinges that employed intrinsic strain energy and biopolymer triggers, as well as ferromagnetic elements. This composition obviated the(More)
We demonstrate self-folding of precisely patterned, optically transparent, all-polymeric containers and describe their utility in mammalian cell and microorganism encapsulation and culture. The polyhedral containers, with SU-8 faces and biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) hinges, spontaneously assembled on heating. Self-folding was driven by a minimization(More)
An important feature of naturally self-assembled systems such as leaves and tissues is that they are curved and have embedded fluidic channels that enable the transport of nutrients to, or removal of waste from, specific three-dimensional regions. Here we report the self-assembly of photopatterned polymers, and consequently microfluidic devices, into curved(More)
UNLABELLED Cell encapsulation therapy (CET) provides an attractive means to transplant cells without the need for immunosuppression. The cells are immunoisolated by surrounding them with a synthetic, semipermeable nanoporous membrane that allows selective permeation of nutrients and therapeutics while isolating the cells from hostile immune components. This(More)
We describe the use of conventional photolithography to construct three dimensional (3D) thin film scaffolds and direct the growth of fibroblasts into three distinct and anatomically relevant geometries: cylinders, spirals and bi-directionally folded sheets. The scaffolds were micropatterned as two dimensional sheets which then spontaneously assembled into(More)
Given the heterogeneous nature of cultures, tumors, and tissues, the ability to capture, contain, and analyze single cells is important for genomics, proteomics, diagnostics, therapeutics, and surgery. Moreover, for surgical applications in small conduits in the body such as in the cardiovascular system, there is a need for tiny tools that approach the size(More)
We describe the self-folding of photopatterned poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel bilayers into curved and anatomically relevant micrometer-scale geometries. The PEG bilayers consist of two different molecular weights (MWs) and are photocrosslinked en masse using conventional photolithography. Self-folding is driven by differential swelling of the(More)
The effect of surfactant monolayer concentration on the measurement of interfacial surface tension using transient drop deformation methods is studied using the Boundary Integral Method. Emulsion droplets with a surfactant monolayer modeled with the Langmuir equation of state initially in equilibrium are suddenly subjected to axisymmetric extensional flows(More)
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