Mustafa Ramadhan

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The malaria transmission potential of wild, infective Anopheles from western Kenya was evaluated by determining the number of sporozoites transmitted in vitro by salivation when their mouthparts were inserted into capillary tubes containing either sucrose or blood. With sucrose, 86.6% of 102 infective Anopheles transmitted a geometric mean (GM) of 3.84(More)
This study tested the feasibility of identifying salavary gland sporozoites to species by Plasmodium falciparum ELISA by drying them on slides or in vials. The glands were dissected from Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. and An. funestus Giles collected in western Kenya. In 119 gland infections containing a geometric mean of 1,222 sporozoites, a mean of 72.5% of(More)
The number of malaria sporozoites in the salivary glands was determined microscopically for 1137 wild, naturally infected Anopheles from western Kenya. Infective Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu lato (n = 874) contained a geometric mean (GM) of 962 sporozoites and An.funestus Giles (n = 263) contained 812. No significant differences were detected in geometric(More)
A cross-layer modification to the DSR protocol is presented in this work which is intended to enhance the global throughput performance of wireless mesh networks. This modification involves the use of an access efficiency factor (which is a measure of the local availability of bandwidth at a node) as an alternative metric to the hop-count metric in order to(More)
This work presents a cross-layer modification to the <i>DSR</i> protocol which discovers high throug hput paths on multi-hop wir eless mesh networks. The modified <i>DSR</i> in corporates a metric based upon the bandwidth a vailability at a node into the routing discovery mechanism. We introduce the Access Efficiency Factor (<i>AEF</i>) as an a Iternative(More)
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