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This open pilot study of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in 60 patients with treatment-resistant major depressive episodes (MDEs) aimed to: 1) define the response rate; 2) determine the profile of side effects; and, most importantly; 3) establish predictors of clinical outcome. Participants were outpatients with nonatypical, nonpsychotic, major depressive or(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the relative efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in psychotic and nonpsychotic patients with unipolar major depression. METHODS The outcome of an acute ECT course in 253 patients with nonpsychotic (n = 176) and psychotic (n = 77) unipolar major depression was assessed in the first phase of an ongoing National Institute of(More)
OBJECTIVE Two antidepressant medication combinations were compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor monotherapy to determine whether either combination produced a higher remission rate in first-step acute-phase (12 weeks) and long-term (7 months) treatment. METHOD The single-blind, prospective, randomized trial enrolled 665 outpatients at six(More)
BACKGROUND Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) delivered by the NeuroCybernetic Prosthesis (NCP) System was examined for its potential antidepressant effects. METHODS Adult outpatients (n = 30) with nonpsychotic, treatment-resistant major depressive (n = 21) or bipolar I (n = 4) or II (n = 5; depressed phase) disorders who had failed at least two robust(More)
The influence of methohexital and propofol on seizure activity and recovery profiles was assessed in a randomized, crossover study involving 13 adult outpatients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were monitored during the ECT procedure. After(More)
Biological psychiatry has a long history of using somatic therapies to treat neuropsychiatric illnesses and to understand brain function. These methods have included neurosurgery, electroconvulsive therapy, and, most recently, transcranial magnetic stimulation. Fourteen years ago researchers discovered that intermittent electrical stimulation of the vagus(More)
BACKGROUND Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) alters both concentrations of neurotransmitters or their metabolites and functional activity of central nervous system regions dysregulated in mood disorders. An open trial has suggested efficacy. METHODS This 10-week, acute, randomized, controlled, masked trial compared adjunctive VNS with sham treatment in 235(More)
The intravenous anesthetics which are commonly used for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) possess dose-dependent anticonvulsant properties. Since the clinical efficacy of ECT depends on the induction of a seizure of adequate duration, it is important to determine the optimal dose of the hypnotic for use during ECT. We compared the duration of seizure activity(More)
BACKGROUND Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who experience full symptomatic remission after antidepressant treatment still have residual depressive symptoms. We describe the types and frequency of residual depressive symptoms and their relationship to subsequent depressive relapse after treatment with citalopram in the Sequenced Treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is effective in the management of treatment-resistant epilepsy. Open-trial evidence suggests that VNS has clinically significant antidepressant effects in some individuals who experience treatment-resistant major depressive episodes. However, limited information regarding the effects of VNS on neurocognitive(More)