Murray L. Whitelaw

Learn More
The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) 1alpha and 2alpha are key mammalian transcription factors that exhibit dramatic increases in both protein stability and intrinsic transcriptional potency during low-oxygen stress. This increased stability is due to the absence of proline hydroxylation, which in normoxia promotes binding of HIF to the von Hippel-Lindau(More)
Mammalian cells adapt to hypoxic conditions through a transcriptional response pathway mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF. HIF transcriptional activity is suppressed under normoxic conditions by hydroxylation of an asparagine residue within its C-terminal transactivation domain, blocking association with coactivators. Here we show that the(More)
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS proteins are critical regulators of gene expression networks underlying many essential physiological and developmental processes. These include transcriptional responses to environmental pollutants and low oxygen tension, mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon (Dioxin) receptor and hypoxia inducible factors (HIF), respectively,(More)
The dioxin receptor is a cytoplasmic basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim homology (bHLH/PAS) protein known to bind planar polycyclic ligands including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzoflavones, heterocyclic amines, and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. dioxins. Ligand-induced activation of the dioxin receptor initiates a process whereby the(More)
Gene regulation by dioxins is mediated by the dioxin receptor-Arnt heterodimer, a ligand generated complex of two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) transcription factors. By using dioxin receptor chimeras where the dimerization and DNA binding bHLH motif has been replaced by a heterologous DNA binding domain, we have detected an ability of(More)
Signal transduction by dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) is mediated by the intracellular dioxin receptor which, in its dioxin-activated state, regulates transcription of target genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P-450IA1 and glutathione S-transferase Ya. Exposure of the dioxin receptor to dioxin leads to an apparent(More)
Oxygen depravation in mammals leads to the transcriptional induction of a host of target genes to metabolically adapt to this deficiency, including erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor. This response is primarily mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) which are members of the basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH/PAS)(More)
Cells adapt to hypoxia by a cellular response, where hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) becomes stabilized and directly activates transcription of downstream genes. In addition to this "canonical" response, certain aspects of the pathway require integration with Notch signaling, i.e., HIF-1alpha can interact with the Notch intracellular domain(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are closely related, key transcriptional regulators of the hypoxic response, countering a low oxygen situation with the up-regulation of target genes associated with numerous processes, including vascularization and glycolysis. This involves a dual mechanism of control through both stabilization and(More)
The dioxin receptor is a ligand-regulated transcription factor that mediates signal transduction by dioxin and related environmental pollutants. The receptor belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) family of factors, which, in addition to the bHLH motif, contain a PAS region of homology. Upon activation, the dioxin receptor dimerizes(More)