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We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in 15,694 cases, 14,026 controls and 414 parent-offspring trios. We identified 30 new susceptibility loci meeting genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸). A(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased exponentially in industrialized nations over the last 50 years. Previous New Zealand studies have shown that IBD is less common than in other countries; however, clinical observations suggested a high incidence and prevalence of IBD in Canterbury, particularly Crohn's disease (CD). AIM This study(More)
OBJECTIVES Gout is one of the most common forms of arthritis. It is well established that urate-lowering therapy that aims for a serum urate less than at least 0.36 mmol/l (6 mg/dl) is required for the successful management of gout. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, is the most commonly used urate-lowering therapy. However, many patients fail(More)
Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29(More)
AIMS To review the basis and optimal use of therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobial agents. METHODS Antimicrobial agents for which a reasonable case exists for therapeutic drug monitoring are reviewed under the following headings: pharmacokinetics, why monitor, therapeutic range, individualization of therapy, sampling times, methods of analysis,(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM The etiology of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is unknown, and limited epidemiological data are available. Our aim was to perform a population based epidemiological study of AIH in Canterbury, New Zealand. METHODS To calculate point prevalence, all adult and pediatric outpatient clinics and hospital discharge summaries were searched to(More)
1. The aminoglycoside antibiotics are 50 years old. Their success and continuing use can be attributed to various factors including rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal effect, synergism with beta-lactam antibiotics, clinical effectiveness, a low rate of true resistance and low cost. 2. The aminoglycosides remain drugs of choice in many circumstances(More)
The treatment of gout requires a lowering of serum urate (SU) levels, and allopurinol is the drug that is most commonly used for this purpose. The objectives of this study were to define the relationships between allopurinol dose on the one hand and plasma oxypurinol, renal function, and SU levels on the other and to determine the minimum plasma oxypurinol(More)
AIMS To determine infant exposure to 6-thioguanine and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides (6-TGN and 6-MMPN, respectively) during maternal use of azathioprine in breastfeeding. METHODS Mother-infant pairs provided blood for determination of 6-TGN and 6-MMPN concentrations, and TPMT genotype. RESULTS Four women taking azathioprine 1.2-2.1 mg kg(-1)(More)
OBJECTIVE There are limited data suggesting that methotrexate polyglutamate (MTXGlu) concentrations can guide MTX dosing in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to define a therapeutic range of red blood cell (RBC) MTXGlu(n) concentrations (where n refers to the number of glutamate groups), including threshold values for(More)