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Early events occurring during the hypersensitive resistance response (HR) were examined using the avrRpm1/RPM1 gene-for-gene interaction in Arabidopsis challenged by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Increases in cytosolic Ca2+ were measured in whole leaves using aequorin-mediated bioluminescence. During the HR a sustained increase in Ca2+ was observed which(More)
Until recently, most studies on the role of hormones in plant-pathogen interactions focused on salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). It is now clear that pathogen-induced modulation of signaling via other hormones contributes to virulence. A picture is emerging of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and(More)
Alterations in the proteome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves during responses to challenge by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein changes characteristic of the establishment of disease, basal resistance, and resistance-gene-mediated resistance were examined by comparing responses(More)
To successfully infect a plant, bacterial pathogens inject a collection of Type III effector proteins (TTEs) directly into the plant cell that function to overcome basal defences and redirect host metabolism for nutrition and growth. We examined (i) the transcriptional dynamics of basal defence responses between Arabidopsis thaliana and Pseudomonas syringae(More)
In the absence of adaptive immunity displayed by animals, plants respond locally to biotic challenge via inducible basal defense networks activated through recognition and response to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In addition, immunity can be induced in tissues remote from infection sites by systemic acquired resistance (SAR), initiated(More)
The importance of phytohormone balance is increasingly recognized as central to the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. Recently it has been demonstrated that abscisic acid signalling pathways are utilized by the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae to promote pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the dynamics, inter-relationship and impact(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) is synthesised by plants in response to challenge by a diverse range of phytopathogens and is essential to the establishment of both local and systemic-acquired resistance (SAR). SA application induces accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Mutations leading to either reduced SA production or impaired SA perception enhance(More)
Microarray transcript profiling and RNA interference are two new technologies crucial for large-scale gene function studies in multicellular eukaryotes. Both rely on sequence-specific hybridization between complementary nucleic acid strands, inciting us to create a collection of gene-specific sequence tags (GSTs) representing at least 21,500 Arabidopsis(More)
Alterations in the proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves during early responses to challenge by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) were analysed using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Protein changes characteristic of the establishment of basal resistance and R-gene mediated resistance were examined by comparing responses to DC3000,(More)
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) provides enhanced, long-lasting systemic immunity to secondary infection by a range of biotrophic, hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens that have diverse modes of infection. Considerable effort has focussed on the conserved central positive regulator of SAR, NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (NPR1), and its(More)