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Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) lose their ability to regenerate early in development, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. By screening genes developmentally regulated in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we identified Krüppel-like factor-4 (KLF4) as a transcriptional repressor of axon growth in RGCs and other CNS neurons. RGCs lacking KLF4(More)
Axon regeneration in the mammalian adult central nervous system (CNS) is limited by an intrinsically low capacity for axon growth in many CNS neurons. In contrast, embryonic, peripheral, and many nonmammalian neurons are capable of successful regeneration. Numerous studies have compared mammalian CNS neurons to their counterparts in regenerating systems in(More)
Axon regeneration in the central nervous system normally fails, in part because of a developmental decline in the intrinsic ability of CNS projection neurons to extend axons. Members of the KLF family of transcription factors regulate regenerative potential in developing CNS neurons. Expression of one family member, KLF7, is down-regulated developmentally,(More)
Embryonic neurons, peripheral neurons, and CNS neurons in zebrafish respond to axon injury by initiating pro-regenerative transcriptional programs that enable axons to extend, locate appropriate targets, and ultimately contribute to behavioral recovery. In contrast, many long-distance projection neurons in the adult mammalian CNS, notably corticospinal(More)
Embryonic birds and mammals display a remarkable ability to regenerate axons after spinal injury, but then lose this ability during a discrete developmental transition. To explain this transition, previous research has emphasized the emergence of myelin and other inhibitory factors in the environment of the spinal cord. However, research in other CNS tracts(More)
Embryonic birds and mammals are capable of axon regeneration after spinal cord injury, but this ability is lost during a discrete developmental transition. We recently showed that changes within maturing neurons, as opposed to changes solely in the spinal cord environment, significantly restrict axon regeneration during development. The developmental(More)
Neurons in the central nervous system lose their intrinsic capacity for axon regeneration as they mature, and it is widely hypothesized that changes in gene expression are responsible. Testing this hypothesis and identifying the relevant genes has been challenging because hundreds to thousands of genes are developmentally regulated in CNS neurons, but only(More)
It is now well established that new proteins are synthesized in the distal segments of elongating axons, where they may play an essential role in some guidance decisions. It remains unclear, however, whether distal protein synthesis also plays an essential role in axon growth per se. Previous in vitro experiments have shown that blocking protein synthesis(More)
Lack of axon growth ability in the central nervous system poses a major barrier to achieving functional connectivity after injury. Thus, a non-transgenic regenerative approach to reinnervating targets has important implications in clinical and research settings. Previous studies using knockout (KO) mice have demonstrated long-distance axon regeneration.(More)
UNLABELLED To restore function after injury to the CNS, axons must be stimulated to extend into denervated territory and, critically, must form functional synapses with appropriate targets. We showed previously that forced overexpression of the transcription factor Sox11 increases axon growth by corticospinal tract (CST) neurons after spinal injury.(More)