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Tomographic techniques are attractive for the investigation of trabecular bone architecture. Using either conventional X-ray sources or synchrotron sources currently allows the acquisition of 3D images in a wide range of spatial resolution that may be as small as a few micrometers. Since it is technically possible to examine trabecular architecture at(More)
X-ray computed microtomography is particularly well suited for studying trabecular bone architecture, which requires three-dimensional (3-D) images with high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we describe a three-dimensional computed microtomography (microCT) system using synchrotron radiation, developed at ESRF. Since synchrotron radiation provides a(More)
In this paper we present a methodology based on 3D synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyze non-destructively 3D bone samples. After a technical presentation of the imaging system and the image analysis techniques, we report results on three-dimensional analysis of vertebral samples from women of different ages. The new capabilities of this(More)
The microstructure and composition of two mollusc shells were investigated using a combination of light microscopy, SEM, EPMA, and XANES. The shells of Pinna and Pinctada are composed of calcite prisms separated by organic walls. The prismatic units of Pinna are monocrystalline, and those of Pinctada are polycrystalline with internal organic radial(More)
It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found(More)
The effect of the concentration of cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) on their intracellular location and distribution has been explored by synchrotron radiation X-ray and fluorescence microscopy (SR-XRF) monitoring the evolution of NPs elemental composition as well. In cells exposed to low concentrations of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the NPs(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a family of materials featuring a large range of length, diameter, numbers of walls and, quite often metallic impurities coming from the catalyst used for their synthesis. They exhibit unique physical properties, which have already led to an extensive development of CNT for numerous applications. Because of this development and(More)
Some ascidians (sea squirts) accumulate the transitional metal vanadium in their blood cells at concentrations of up to 350 mM, about 10(7) times its concentration found in seawater. There are approximately 10 different types of blood cell in ascidians. The identity of the true vanadium-containing blood cell (vanadocyte) is controversial and little is known(More)
BACKGROUND Lanthanum carbonate has been shown to be a safe, effective phosphate-binding agent. We have shown that an impaired mineralization in chronic renal failure rats treated with high doses of lanthanum carbonate develops secondary to phosphate depletion and is therefore pharmacologically mediated rather than a direct effect of lanthanum on bone.(More)
Hexavalent chromium compounds are known carcinogens for the respiratory tract in humans. The mechanism of cell transformation by hexavalent chromium compounds is not fully understood although a role for intracellular reduction is sought. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Cr valence states in human cells after in vitro exposure to(More)