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Tomographic techniques are attractive for the investigation of trabecular bone architecture. Using either conventional X-ray sources or synchrotron sources currently allows the acquisition of 3D images in a wide range of spatial resolution that may be as small as a few micrometers. Since it is technically possible to examine trabecular architecture at(More)
X-ray computed microtomography is particularly well suited for studying trabecular bone architecture, which requires three-dimensional (3-D) images with high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we describe a three-dimensional computed microtomography (microCT) system using synchrotron radiation, developed at ESRF. Since synchrotron radiation provides a(More)
In this paper we present a methodology based on 3D synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyze non-destructively 3D bone samples. After a technical presentation of the imaging system and the image analysis techniques, we report results on three-dimensional analysis of vertebral samples from women of different ages. The new capabilities of this(More)
A microstructural, mineralogical, and chemical study of the nacre-prisms boundary in the shells of Pinctada margaritifera shows that this boundary is not an abrupt transition, but that there exists a distinct fibrous layer with clear topographic structures and evidence of growth lines. A three-step biomineralization process is proposed that involves changes(More)
The microstructure and composition of two mollusc shells were investigated using a combination of light microscopy, SEM, EPMA, and XANES. The shells of Pinna and Pinctada are composed of calcite prisms separated by organic walls. The prismatic units of Pinna are monocrystalline, and those of Pinctada are polycrystalline with internal organic radial(More)
New information about calcium status in human scalp hair shaft, deduced from X-ray micro-fluorescence imaging, including its distribution over the hair section, the existence of one or several binding-types and its variation between people, is presented. The existence of two different calcium types is inferred. The first one corresponds to atoms (or ions)(More)
3 Highlights  In situ calcification (aragonite) of a 3.3 Ga microbial biofilm  Calcification probably due to the activities of a photosynthetic consortium of microorganisms within the biofilm including heterotrophic sulphur reducing bacteria  Preservation of the metastable carbonate phase by the organic matrix and secondary silicification  Oldest known(More)
BACKGROUND Lanthanum carbonate has been shown to be a safe, effective phosphate-binding agent. We have shown that an impaired mineralization in chronic renal failure rats treated with high doses of lanthanum carbonate develops secondary to phosphate depletion and is therefore pharmacologically mediated rather than a direct effect of lanthanum on bone.(More)
The effect of the concentration of cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) on their intracellular location and distribution has been explored by synchrotron radiation X-ray and fluorescence microscopy (SR-XRF) monitoring the evolution of NPs elemental composition as well. In cells exposed to low concentrations of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the NPs(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a family of materials featuring a large range of length, diameter, numbers of walls and, quite often metallic impurities coming from the catalyst used for their synthesis. They exhibit unique physical properties, which have already led to an extensive development of CNT for numerous applications. Because of this development and(More)