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Although both c-Ret and GFRalpha1 are required for responsiveness to GDNF, GFRalpha1 is widely expressed in the absence of c-Ret, suggesting alternative roles for "ectopic" sites of GFRalpha1 expression. We show that GFRalpha1 is released by neuronal cells, Schwann cells, and injured sciatic nerve. c-Ret stimulation in trans by soluble or immobilized(More)
c-Ret kinase (cis signaling). The two receptors also interact with low affinity in the absence of ligand, resulting in the formation of a less selective receptor complex capable of interacting with other members of the GDNF ligand family as well as several GDNF mutants with de-Three close mammalian 17177 Stockholm homologs of GDNF have been identified, all(More)
The catalytic and signaling activities of RET, a tyrosine kinase receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), are controlled by the autophosphorylation of several tyrosine residues in the RET cytoplasmic domain. To analyze the phosphorylation state of individual tyrosines, we generated antibodies recognizing specific phosphotyrosine(More)
TGFalpha is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family with which it shares the same receptor, the EGF receptor (EGFR). Synthesis of TGFalpha and EGFR in reactive astrocytes developing after CNS insults is associated with the differentiative and mitogenic effects of TGFalpha on cultured astrocytes. This suggests a role for TGFalpha in the(More)
Constitutive secretion of complement C3 and factor B by the endothelial cell (EC) is lowered by therapeutic concentrations of glucocorticoids such as hydrocortisone or dexamethasone, whereas regulatory protein factor H production is increased by these hormones. In contrast, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 alpha has a stimulatory effect on C3 and factor B(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) acts on immature astrocytes that express its trimeric receptor. In contrast, mature astrocytes do not significantly express the specific CNTFalpha receptor subunit, yet they respond to CNTF administration in vivo. Here we show that this controversy may be solved by a shift in astroglial sensitivity to CNTF over time,(More)
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry(More)
The enhanced expression of the trophic factor transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in reactive astrocytes following CNS injury suggests that TGF alpha has a role in the development of astrogliosis. We explored this hypothesis in the murine mutant wobbler, which presents a progressive motoneuronal degeneration associated with an astrogliosis.(More)
The molecular events leading to motoneuronal death are still poorly understood. In mammals, the bcl-2 proto-oncogene, which encodes a membrane-associated protein, has been shown to suppress both developmental motoneuronal death and experimental axotomy-induced motoneuronal death. We assessed a potential protective effect of Bcl-2 on pathological(More)